☤☤☤☤ Different Routes of Medication Administration ☤☤☤☤



over the course of your life you have probably taken many different kinds of medication some you took my mouth like an antibiotic maybe you have asthma and using an inhaler perhaps you've tried quitting smoking and are using a patch or in a worst case scenario you might know someone who has been hospitalized and been given drug intravenously that is to say into a vein at a different ways that drugs used to treat you can be administered precisely match the ways illicit substances can be absorbed into the system for desired effect which will be the subject of our lesson oral administration p.o ingestion of a drug by mouth and into the gastrointestinal tract is one way by which a drug can be taken P o stands for per us or by mouth the drug travels from your mouth into the esophagus then into the intestines that is why more technically the oral route is part of the enteral routes with interval referring to the intestines these drugs eventually reach along the way to the intestines the tail or capsule is broken apart and its contents dissolved into a mixture that is then transported into the bloodstream once in the bloodstream the drug will then act on various organs in your body including the brain I told you all of that because you can clearly tell this is a long winded route like a really long road trip it takes a while for the drug to actually begin exerting its effects if it's taken orally this is especially true for persons stomach is full of food the food needs to be digested as well and it acts as sort of a buffer to help minimize the rate at which the drug enters the body another kind of rod of drug administration is known as transdermal or through the skin dermal references the skin and trans means it goes through something like the trans-siberian railway goes through Siberia anyways you've almost definitely seen advertisements for something like nicotine patches these guys use transdermal technology these patches are a good way to deliver a continuous and sustained release of a substance over time another well-known transdermal medicine is the fentanyl patch this is an opioid analgesic a drug that relieves pain and it's very powerful it's an established fact that this class of drugs is abused a lot you'd be surprised at some of the ways people try to abuse these pain relieving patches some methods are obvious like putting more than one patch on or changing the patches more frequently than indicated but some people get creative in order to elicit a high from these opioid patches and put themselves at a very real risk of death from overdose methods of patch abuse include chewing or swallowing the patches diluting the fentanyl into tea inhaling the gel that makes up the patches extracting the fentanyl and injecting it into a vein and inserting the patches into the rectum why people do this will make sense with the next three ways by which drugs are absorbed one reason is that besides the skin some drugs can cause the mucous membranes of your body and enter the bloodstream these are areas of the body that includes the lips insides of the nose and mouth sublingual lozenges are a great example of this sublingual means under the tongue the drug dissolves under the tongue and enter the bloodstream after making its way through the thin mucous membranes under the tongue this typically result in a faster effect then if you were to simply swallow a medicine but if a person wants even faster effects then they may employ inhalation of the drug this is a method of drug delivery by way of the lungs drugs that are taken in by inhalation can exert their effects in less than a minute this is why smoking a drug is usually associated with greater chances of developing dependency on a drug another very fast way to get a drug to exert its effects is through intravenous injection or IV injection which is direct injection of a substance into a vein while injecting directly into the vein may cause a very quick onset of a desired outcome it carries two big risks firstly the chances of an overdose are much higher precisely because large quantities can be administered in a very short space of time and the second big risk is that uninfected such as HIV or hepatitis can occur when needles are shared HIV leads to AIDS which then may lead to death whereas hepatitis can lead to liver failure and cancer injections via the IV route isn't the only way to get a drug into your body using a syringe a drug user may turn to injection of a drug into a person's muscle which is known as intramuscular or i.m injection and injection of a drug under the skin which is known as subcutaneous injection these as with IV use can predispose a person to everything from painful abscesses to a life-threatening viral disease the ways by which drugs can be administered or taken are many let's go over them one more time oral administration p.o ingestion of a drug by mouth and into the gastrointestinal tract is one way it's a pretty slow way of getting a drug to exert its effect compared to many of the methods we discussed transdermal or through the skin administration is another possibility this is especially good for sustained release of drugs other than the skin some drugs can cause the mucous membranes of your body and enter the bloodstream these are areas of the body that includes the lips inside of the nose and mouth this typically results in a faster effect then if you were to simply swallow a medicine but if someone wants faster effects they may employ inhalation of the drop this is a method of drug delivery by way of the lungs drugs that are taken in by inhalation can exert their effects in less than a minute but carry a greater risk of dependency just like intravenous injection or direct injection of a substance into a vein which also carries the risk of overdose and infection by deadly viruses injection via the IV route isn't the only way to get a drug into your body by using a syringe a drug user may turn to injection of a drug into a person's muscle which is known intramuscular injections and injection of a drug under the skin known as subcutaneous injection

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