Blood Cells – Hematology | Medical Education Videos



now that is a complex mixture of cells but there are three major types that I want to focus on at this stage red cells their primary role is to carry oxygen around the body and there are thousand times more numerous than other cells white cells their major function is to fight infection there are two major subtypes lymphocytes and myeloid cells and thirdly platelets these are small fragments of a megakaryocytes cell and they form blood clots let's look at red cells in a little more detail and you can see on the right an electron micrograph of red cells showing their biconcave shape beautiful picture as we've heard these are much more common than white cells in the blood and as you will see they don't have a nucleus when they're generated in the bone marrow precursor cells extrude the nucleus and the red cells are released into the circulation without a nucleus that limits their survival and their Lea live around 120 days a fact beloved of many medical students for reasons that I've never quite understood but there's something very memorable about that the major purpose of red cells is to carry oxygen deep into our tissues in fact the vascular system may well have evolved to provide oxygenation deep into tissues and as you'll see from their shape they're very flexible and that allows red cells to migrate through capillaries in very small areas and in deep into tissues let me introduce the first type of white cell the lymphocyte that shown is number two on the slide on the right you'll immediately see the very large nuclear two cytoplasmic ratio in the dark blue staining of the nucleus they'll also see some red cells and small platelets now lymphocytes are the cells that mediate the function of the immune system particularly the adaptive immune system that makes antibodies and also can kill virally infected cells they're very sophisticated cells and they can live for many years and they constantly circulate between the blood and through lymphoid tissues searching for pathogens and to initiate immune responses there are two major types of lymphocyte the t-cell and the b-cell and they have slightly different functions neutrophils are the other major subset of white cell they have a critical role in fighting bacterial and fungal infection and when we have patients in hospital wards who having chemotherapy we often suppress by this treatment at neutrophil count and that can leave patients very prone to infections you'll see on the right some of these neutrophils and you'll see immediately how their nucleus is very characteristic multi lobed and they contain a number of granules as we'll see they are released from the bone marrow and survive for around two or three days before entering tissues they can ingest bacteria and cells which have become covered with antibody acting as a signal for the ingestion and destruction of that cell once they've taken in bacteria and oxidized cells as these cells with antibody are called they can then kill them using toxic enzymes and oxygen radicals you just completed your first video of the world's best medical exam preparation lect oreo brings the knowledge of worldwide leading medical experts and Teaching Award winners to your PC tablet or smartphone prepare yourself and check your progress with thousands of quiz questions customized to USMLE standards and the very best you can get in touch with our medical experts personally visit lect oreo calm now and continue with the most inspiring medical education around the globe anytime anywhere you

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