Changing disease landscapes – Towards a Global Health approach

population growth increased urbanization economic development and pressure on the Earth's natural resources our threats to human animal and environmental health more people live today in urban environments and they've migrated from the rural areas to feed the cities we need to produce more food intensive livestock agriculture the raising of poultry or swine particularly in peri-urban or close to the cities in great numbers is a perfect environment for disease emergence as we saw with h5n1 avian influenza in Southeast Asia lustig are the weakest link in global health livestock connects environmental health and human have in many different ways and these connections are changing in a globalized world we need to grow much more efficiently the livestock sector than we've done in the past that means intensification is necessary but instigation needs to be managed in a way that animal welfare pollution and also disease issue antibiotic issues for example are managed much more carefully we live in a globalized world millions of people travel every day long distances are covered fast an incubation period is the time when a patient is infected and until a time that person shows clinical signs and that incubation period can be anywhere between days to a few weeks in the case of international travel this occurs within hours so you can become infected one part of the world and when you travel to another part of world a few hours later you could actually develop the clinical signs in that a neighboring country or across the world African swine fever when it entered into Eastern Europe was through the importation or of garbage that was fed to pigs and pigs came down with African swine fever and today we have the disease spreading into several countries of Eucerin europe and threatening Western Europe as well as Asia forested areas are cut down to expand cropland which increases contact between humans livestock and Wildlife endemic diseases in a wildlife forested area have probably been occurring there for hundreds if not thousands of years so when a new host let's say a human or or cattle enter into that cycle they may encounter new vectors or new pathogens that they have never seen before HIPAA virus is an interesting example here we were expanding in certain parts of the world swine production in the midst of date palm cultivation and by encroaching into the forests we do encounter bats the bats carrying the virus will contaminate that palm dates app humans and pigs that drink the SAP or eat the fruits will be affected climate change alters temperature humidity and seasonality it directly impacts on the survival of microbes in the environment with more rains or more precipitation we would likely see more bugs mosquitoes flies ticks and we know that some of these vectors carry microbes with them whether it's dengue malaria Rift Valley fever or chikungunya the livestock sector is very exposed to climate change also given the fact that a lot of livestock production is taking place in very marginal environments which will be particularly exposed to climate change and that will affect the livelihoods of many of the partial list and smallholders that FAO is concerned about the livestock sector is an important emitter of greenhouse gas emissions but the more important fact is that the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector with the wide application of available technologies is substantial new infectious diseases are appearing old ones can return the poor are most vulnerable and carry the heaviest burden every minute that we let pass without addressing disease at its source is time lost the Food and Agriculture Organization and its partners advocate an integrated and interdisciplinary approach to global health we call upon all stakeholders especially the decision makers within governments international organization civil society private sector research institution and academia to actively promote this innovative perspective to save lives and save livelihoods you

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