Emergency First Aid – General First Aid

Marine Online Tthis section should give a short introduction to the ABC handling procedures CPR unconsciousness and the recovery position examining the casualty and mental first aid no matter what kind of injury incident or accident the ABC handling procedure is of utmost importance in assessing the casualty these rules are to be followed in order to secure the vital functions of the casualty if these functions are not in order the casualty may die to survive there must be a minimum of vital functions an unconscious casualties Airways may become narrowed or blocked this makes breathing difficult and noisy or completely impossible a common reason for this is that muscular control in the throat is lost which allows the tongue to fall back and block the airway if there is no neck injury and having inspected the mouth for any obvious obstruction there are three manoeuvres used to relieve upper airway obstruction these are head-tilt chin-lift and your thrust to perform a head tilt and chin lift place one hand on the patient’s forehead and tilt the head gently back place the fingertips of your other hand under the point of the patient’s chin and gently lift the chin back this manoeuvre should only be performed if there is no concern regarding a neck injury if there is any doubt that jaw thrust maneuver only can be performed identify the angle of the jaw and with the index and other fingers applied behind it apply a steady pressure to lift the jaw forward this avoids any neck extension check the casualties breathing for up to 10 seconds by looking for chest movement listening for sounds of breathing and feeling for breath on your cheek if the patient is not breathing ask someone to call for help if you are on your own you may need to do this yourself leaving the patient briefly then start CPR give 30 chest compressions at a rate of 100 per minute after 30 compressions give 2 rescue breaths continue with compressions and rescue breaths at a ratio of 30:2 to only stop when help arrives or you become exhausted if the casualty is breathing place him in the recovery position and calls for help remember to reassess the patient regularly for continued breathing remember the three key words look listen and feel you if the heart stops you can apply to force blood through the heart and around the body you must combine these with artificial ventilation so that the blood is oxygenated you when referring to bleeding in first aid and emergency medicine it is defined as serious and life-threatening bleeding in need of immediate treatment and on-site medical care an adult’s person’s blood volume is approximately seven percent of the person’s body weight in children the percentage is slightly higher in an adult blood loss of more than 40 percent or approximately two litres would in any case be fatal bleeding injuries are divided into two major categories external which is readily visible and in thermal which is much more difficult to diagnose we will concentrate on external bleeding to treat external bleeding you need to place direct pressure immediately upon the wound with your hand or finger if possible elevate the injury lie the patient down bandaged directly over the bleeding prevent circulatory failure monitor the patient the blood is oxygenated by breathing and is circulated around the body by the beating of the heart if the body’s natural mechanisms of breathing and heartbeat break down it is essential to resuscitate the casualty by taking over the ventilation and circulation through artificial ventilation and chest compressions respectively this restores the supply of oxygen to the brain if the heart has stopped beating you will have to provide artificial circulation by means of chest compressions to be of any use chest compressions must always be combined with artificial ventilation this process is known as cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR for short if both you and your helper are trained to administer CPR you can do so together you you should always give both artificial ventilation and carry out chest compressions at about 100 compressions per minute give two breaths of mouth-to-mouth ventilation alternated with 30 chest compressions make sure it is safe to approach the patient check patient responsiveness call for help open the airway if the patient is not breathing start CPR tilt the head back to open the airway and check for breathing if the casualty isn’t breathing you will have to start artificial ventilation first you need to give 30 compressions breathe for the casualty look into the mouth and remove obvious obstruction if the casualty is not breathing then start compressions kneel by their side place the heel of one hand in the center of their chest have a heel of the second hand on top of the first interlock the fingers of your hands position yourself vertically above the patient and with your arms straight press down on the breastbone after each compression release all the pressure on the chest without losing contact between your hands and the breastbone repeat at a rate of 100 per minute after 30 compressions open the airway using the head-tilt chin-lift method or the jaw thrust and give two rescue breaths having done this continue with chest compressions and rescue breaths at a ratio of 30:2 to you should check that the patient’s chest rises when you give rescue breaths if this is not happening check the mouth for foreign bodies and check that there is adequate head tilt and your thrusts do not attempt more than two breaths before returning to compressions only stop CPR if the patient starts to breathe spontaneously or if help arrives or if you become exhausted and unable to carry on you place the middle finger of your lower hand over the point where the lowermost ribs meet the breastbone place the heel of your other hand on the breastbone slide it down to meet your index finger lean well over the casualty with your arms straight press down vertically on the breastbone and depress it by approximately four to five centimetres release the pressure without removing your hands compress the chest 30 times aiming for about 100 compressions per minute children and babies require different treatment than adults check response anyway check breathing breathe for the casualty gently blow into the mouth until the chest rises on babies under one year we usually blow both into the casualties mouth and nose commence CPR with very young children give five breaths of artificial ventilation before starting CPR use two fingers for a child under one year old to compress the chest by one-third and do this 30 times then give two breaths alternated with 30 chest compressions if the child is eight years or over treat as for an adult unconsciousness results from an interruption of the brain’s normal activity whatever the cause follow these three rules ensure that the airway is clear keep checking response level examine the casualty thoroughly you when examining and treating an unconscious casualty your aim is to maintain an open airway to assess and record the level of response to treat any associated injuries to arrange if necessary urgent removal to hospital to gather and retain any circumstantial evidence of the cause of the condition you do not attempt to give an unconscious casualty anything by mouth do not move the casualty necessarily because of the possibility of spinal injury never try to make an unconscious person sit or stand upright do not leave an unconscious casualty unattended at any time you an unconscious casualty who is breathing should be placed in the recovery position this position prevents the tongue from blocking the throat and because the head is lower than the rest of the body liquids can plane from the mouth reducing the risk of the casualty inhaling stomach contents the head neck and back are kept aligned while the bent limbs keep the body propped in a comfortable and secure position if you are forced to leave an unconscious casualty unattended he or she can safely be left in the recovery position while you get help you kneel beside the casualty before turning him remove any fragile or bulky objects from his pockets open his airway by tilting the head and lifting the chin straighten his legs place the arm nearest to you at right angles to the casualties body bring the arm furthest from you across the chest and place the back of the casualties hand against his opposite cheek with your other hand pull up the far leg just above the knee keeping the foot flat on the ground keeping the casualties hand-pressed his cheek pull on the upper leg to roll the casualty towards you and on his side if necessary use your knees to support the casualty so that he is prevented from rolling too far forwards tilt the head back to in the airway remains open if necessary adjust the hand under the cheek and adjust the upper leg so that both the hip and the knee are bent at right angles dial for an ambulance monitor and record breathing and pulse every 10 minutes until help arrives you a detailed examination of the casualty taken only after taking any vital action needed you may need to move or remove clothing but ensure that at every stage of your examination you do not move the casualty more than is absolutely necessary always start at the head and work down the top to toe routine is both easily remembered and thorough examine the casualty in the following order head and neck shoulders impressed back hips and abdomen sighs legs and feet and arms you there are several first aid kits on board a vessel normally they are located on the bridge Gally you in the engine control room in each lifeboat the contents of these first-aid kits are regulated according International and national requirements Radio medico is medical assistance to ‘man abroad under international conventions countries give radio medical advice to ships at sea in the UK ships called the Coast Guard and also medical evacuation can be arranged by air if a person gets badly injured on boards and the management on board must request medical assistance from sure they can contact a hospital through a radio station Norwegian seamen for example can contact homeland hospital through Rhode Island radio the doctor on duty will have immediate access to rescue centers worldwide although the service is established to serve Norwegian vessels requests from non Norwegian clients will be honored doctors require the following essential information what are the symptoms and signs and when did they occur when did the symptoms or signs start what was the very first complaint of the patient what are the findings upon examination general impression looks ill look swell consciousness clear-minded confused unconscious face color sweating temperature pulse respiration rate you every casualty needs to feel secure and in safe hands you can create an air of confidence and assurance by being in control both of yourself and the problem acting calmly and logically being gentle but firm with your hands and speaking to the casualty kindly but purposefully talk to the casualty throughout your examination and treatment explain what you are going to do try to answer questions honestly to allay fears as best you can if you do not know the answer say so continue to reassure the casualty even when your treatment is complete find out about the next of kin or anyone else who should be contacted about the incident ask if you could help to make arrangements so that any responsibilities the casualty may have such as collecting a child from school can be taken care of do not leave someone whom you believe may be dying continue to talk to the casualty and hold his or her hand never let the person feel alone you

1 comment

  1. The ABC procedures has been changed for CAB in 2010, check The American Heart Association(AHA) guidelines for CPR 2015

Leave a Reply

(*) Required, Your email will not be published