First Aid & CPR Basics : Depth of CPR Chest Compressions

Hi again, I’m Michelle of the AD HOC Group.
Now that you’ve learned the proper hand placement for compressions, we’re going
to work on the depth of compressions, one-half to two inches, be sure to release all pressure
after each compression to allow the chest to recoil completely, this lets the heart
fully refill. For children age one to eight, compress one-half to one-third of the depth
of the chest. Whatever size the child is, this will help you determine just how much
to compress as children vary greatly in size. Watch as I demonstrate the depth of compressions
and practice with me using a pillow or a teddy bear. Notice that I rock from the hips, my
arms are straight, my elbows are locked and compress using your arm muscles and by bending
your elbows, you’re going to be getting too tired too quickly. Be kind to yourself,
you may have to do this for 15 or 20 minutes until help arrives, if you tire too quickly,
you’ll not give very effective CPR and may even become exhausted and quit before help
arrives. This person’s life depends on you to hang in there, so conserve your energy.


  1. Medicine changes frequently as more studies are done there are better results. Currently 12/07 the recommended Adult ratio is 2 breaths and 30 comp's (at the 100/minute rate) – meaning 50 comp's in 30 seconds, 2 breaths and so on). Do this for 5 cycles, check for breathing and pulse on the carotid artery (on the neck). Broken ribs and bruised lungs are frequent. You want to compress to 1/4 to 1/3 the chest height. 1-1/2" – 2" comp' will do little on a large or obese person.

  2. You're meant to lift your fingers up as you do the compressions to lessen the risk of breaking the ribs. The ratio of compressions:breaths for an adult is 30:2 aiming for about 2 compressions every second. For a child between the ages of 1 till puberty it's a ratio of 15:2 using either one hand or two (depending on the size of the child). For a child/infant under the age of one you only use two fingers.

  3. But to be honest it'd be a whole lot better if people went and sought out first aid lessons rather than relying solely on internet vids. : )
    *student nurse at uni*

  4. yes, but it still lessens the risk of breaking the ribs, it doesn't completely get rid of that risk, plus what I was taught at uni (only a few months back) was how to do CPR with just one rescuer, so I dunno if different methods apply elsewhere etc, but that's what my nursing cohort have been taught 🙂

  5. *shrugs* well I'm going on what a senior and experienced nurse told me, so if that's wrong then so be it. and I'm in the UK, dunno if youtube will allow me to post the link to the algorithm we're using:

    resus dot org dot uk slash pages slash pblsalgo dot pdf

    to be honest I think it'd be easier if there was just a standard resuscitation guideline around the world, cos from your comments, it seems at least the US and UK differ somewhat

  6. Actually,for an adult & child, C.P.R. is done at a rate of 30 compressions to 2 ventilations (30:2). You no longer landmark, but rather place your hands just off of the breastbone near the midline of the body. Then spread your legs far apart to maintain your stamina, so you don't get tired so quickly. Then lock your arms & go about 1 1/2-2 in. of the patients body depth. Ribs are most likely going to break. If this happens use caution but continue C.P.R. .

  7. Perform C.P.R. until medical help takes over, another rescuer takes over or you are to physically *exhausted* to continue.

    The main objective or the aim of C.P.R. is not necessarily, to revive the patient. The patient only has about a 20-30 % chance of being revived. Basically you are trying to keep the vital organs alive for transplant.

  8. Finally, I dislike how this instructor says "medical help should be about 15-20 minutes," before they arrive. That is not true. Generally, if you live in the city then help should be there in 6-8 minutes of the call coming in unless delayed. But what if you are out in the back country, help could be 40 minutes to an hour, depending on your location and where stations are based.

  9. After reading these comments, I have come to the conclusion that discussing CPR is like discussing religion. Different authorities have varied opinions. For example, one group favors chest compressions without ventilations.

  10. As a matter of fact I am a trainer. Generally, depending on what tools you use in the field, the chances of the patient being revived are not really 7% but usually 20%. You also have to consider the patients age. If they are elderly, they probably will not survive anyways. But, you can also you an A.E.D. aswell, which in turn, actually can increase the chance of the patient surviving. You could use oxygen with a BVM or a Bag Valve Mask which again helps the patient.

  11. You are absolutely right, the patient would be most likely thankful that you broke their ribs and didn't just let them die. But broken ribs can actually be a hazard to the patient. If the ribs break in the right place, they could puncture the lungs and other vital organs. The bad thing with this is, {epspecially with the lungs,} is fluid can start to fill the internal wall of the lungs. This also leaves the patient at risk for infection & possible death.

  12. Once again, the main objective of C.P.R. is to keep the vital organs alive for transplant in case the patient is a donor. Due to the low percentage of surviving the patient will most likely die in front of you.

  13. The chances of you breaking a persons ribs are high. This is if you do C.P.R. right and at the right depth, 1.5-2 inches

  14. actually those dolls, are really a couple thousand dollars. Of course this depends on if you have dolls that can actually have simulated breathing, pulse rates, etc.

  15. when you are trying to give first aid to someone who is not breathing or has no pulse you can actually hear some nasty cracking inside their body.. my P.E. theory teacher told me

  16. bear in mind that the united states has good samaritan laws that protect u from a lawsuit if u break ribs

  17. This is partially true. However the ribs can actually puncture lungs and other vital organs. For this sort of incident to occur is rare, it can still happen. This depends on where the initial break in the ribs occurs. But even if this happens the good samaritan law protects you.

  18. This is true, the United States, Canada and other countries do have Good Samaritan lwas which protect people when they offer to help a person in need. However, this law only protects you if you Identify yourself as a person trained in first aid/ offer to help, use only protocol that DOES NOT go against your scope of training, you act in good faith, and you do not abandon or leave the patient.

  19. Oh no way, I am actually a first aid attendant for St. John Ambulance Brigade. I am going into my 7th year in September. When did you take the course? I have never been taught or have even heard of studens practicing on eachother. Although if you press lightly I guess not much damage could happen. I am suprised they didn't use the Annie dolls.

  20. Although the GSL, may be be different in some countries so be sure you are fully aware of your rights and obligations of the Good Samaritain Law.

  21. By the way, remember that just because you are being shown how to do CPR in this video, this doesn't mean anyone can go ahead and do it. Make sure you are properly trained to deal with the nature of the emergency. I recommend not to do this without a valid first aid ticket.

  22. Good intro to cpr but…..

    to be FULLY TRAINED, it is a 2 to 3 day course with much more training involved than
    learned from a 1 min video.

  23. Check out this new mattress designed by college students. It makes CPR faster and more efficient in hospitals.

    Search for "CPR Mattress" on YouTube

  24. True the victim may be (dead.) However, remember that first resonders/ lay rescuers cannot declare a patient to be dead unless of course like their head is not connected to the body, etc. Only doctors can declare a patient to be dead. The GSL in Canada will protect you as long as you offer to help assistance, act in good faith, do not leave/ abandon the Pt., & if you have a first aid ticket, you use the training which your ticket allows.

  25. Your suppose to…and it wont break your chest lol…you have to do it 1/2 inch or 1/3 inches or something like that in order to get the air/blood pumping to your brain.. i took that class when i was in 9th grade too but i hated it cause i didnt really care about it too much..

  26. CPR may infact break the ribs. Is this the case for every CPR situation? No. However, some patients ribs will break due to the depth of compressions/ downward force being applied as you compress.

  27. actually, this how deep to perform compressions. The patients ribs may break but this is normal in some cases involving CPR.

  28. First off you shouldnt be standing, secondly you use your body weight to compress not your arm muscles, and you keep your hands on the chest as all times. for a child you should compress 1 inch to 1 and a half inch. You can Use one or Two hands on a child but in most cases a child will be suffering a respiratory emergency rather than cardiac so they would need Rescue Breathing Before CPR.

  29. Well actually, the mechanics of CPR such as (the shoulders and arms,) are important to pefrom CPR effectively.

  30. You can use two hands if desired, but you don't need to. It would depend on your strength and endurance for doing the task for what may be a long while.

  31. WTF does that have to do with anything? Americans have given the world the greatest medical advancements and procedures. Thats why people go to America if they can.

  32. St. John Ambulance*

    Ya, you wouldn't jump right into CPR. You would do a scene survey, then primary survey, etc.

  33. one rescuer does, breathes the other compressions. You only switch positions if the compressor gives the call. The compressor always has control of the situation and makes those calls. Before switching always finish a proper cycle of vents and compressions.

  34. Umm. Wow. Obviously this is part of a series. This particular episode was just detail on how to correctly do the compressions.

  35. You can use one hand with a child, however, you should consider the childs size, as all children are different. For some children you can use one hand, others you may have to use two.

  36. I'm seriously not asking you to. I'm really sure if I was in need of someones assistance.. i wouldn't come across a Sweedish bloke walking down my street.

  37. @TRIXSTER03 You need to take CPR. If she did not do it like that there would be little likelyhood that the casualty would come back. She is trying to get the heart to pump from outside of the body. Very few actually survive at this point. You may even here the catilage breaking while administering, but they will heal if you can get them back.

  38. @cwhjr1–Yes if the patient has no pulses and no breathing then yes you do CPR…what are you confused about? Perhaps because I said practicing CPR on a live person? If the patient is alive and you do CPR (i.e. they have breathing) then you can injure of in severe cases kill them. This is why you need to ensure that the patient is indeed in cardiac arrest.

    First Responder,

  39. press hard at least 2 " according to ILCOR standards, press fast over 100 beats per minute again ILCOR standard. Good Compression Good Recovery.
    International Liason Committe On Resuscitation.

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