Houston A Diverse City

OUR FIRST DAY OF FALL. RAIN CHANCES COMING IN FOR THE WEEKEND. >> HAD HI, EVERYBODY, AND WELCOME TO “HOUSTON LIFE.” >> HOUSTON IS ON THE FOREFRONT OF CHANGE, AND NO ONE KNOWS THAT BETTER THAN OUR FIRST GUEST. >> HE’S BEEN TRACKING ALL THE WAY HOUSTON HAS BEEN CHANGING. JOINING US IS STEPHEN KLEIN BURYING WITH THE KINDER INSTITUTE OF HUMAN RESEARCH. I FIND THIS FASCINATING. THIS WAS NEWS TO ME THAT HOUSTON IS THE MOST ETHNICALLY URBAN CENTER. >> DURING THE OIL BOOM YEARS OF THE ’60s AND ’70s, HOUSTON WAS HAVING AN OIL BOOM AND PEOPLE WERE POURING IN THE ANGLO POPULATION STOPPED GROWING AFTER THE OIL BUST, AND THE GROWTH HAS BEEN INFLUX OF AFRICAN-AMERICANS, LATINOS AND ASIANS. THE BIRACIAL SOUTHERN CITY IN 1960, THERE WERE 74% OF US WERE ANGLOS, 67% HISPANICS. BY 1980, WE’VE BECOME THE FOURTH LARGEST SITUATION. THE ANGLO POPULATION DROPPED. >> SO THE BLUE PART REPRESENTS THE ANGLOS. >> YOU CAN SEE THEM POURING INTO HOUSTON DURING THE OIL BOOM YEARS, AND THEN AFTER 1982, NO NET INCREASE IN ANGLOS IN HARRIS COUNTY, AND THE GROWTH OF THE CITY WAS AFRICAN-AMERICAN AND ESPECIALLY, OF COURSE, LATINOS. >> AND ’82 WAS WHEN WE SAW THE BIG OIL BUST, BIG RECESSION. THESE NUMBERS ARE JUST INCREDIBLE. >> NO CITY IN THE WORLD THAT LOOKS LIKE THIS. AND SO BY 2010, HARRIS COUNTY IS NOW 41% LATINOS, 33% ANGLO, 33% AFRICAN-AMERICAN. >> LET’S LOOK AHEAD TO THE FUTURE. SO WHERE DOES THIS CHART GO IN 2020, 2030 AND BEYOND? >> SO THE OTHER BIG PIECE OF THIS IS AGE. OLDER FOLKS ARE DISPROPORTIONATELY ANGLO AND YOUNGER FOLKS ARE DISPROPORTIONATELY NONANGLO. AS WE GO FORWARD, ANGLO POPULATION IS GOING TO DROP AND THE LATINO POPULATION IS GOING TO CONTINUE TO SURGE. >> WE’RE LOOKING AT THE CHANGE IN THE MAKE-UP AND THE POPULATION, LATINO POPULATION, IT REALLY STARTED TO INCREASE IN ABOUT 2000. DOES THAT HAVE ANY CORRELATION TO WHAT WAS GOING ON, SAY, IN MEXICO AND ALL THE STUFF THAT WAS HAPPENING ALONG THE BORDER? >> SURE, AND THE DESPERATION OF MEXICANS COMING IN, UNEMPLOYMENT, AND THE REASON WHY THERE’S SO MANY UNDOCUMENT IMMIGRANTS IS THAT WE DID NOT ALLOW ENOUGH IMMIGRANTS TO COME HERE LEGALLY TO DO THE JOBS THAT WE NEEDED TO HAVE DONE FOR THE LAST 30 YEARS BY PEOPLE WHO DESPERATELY NEEDED TO DO THEM. >> I WANT TO ASK YOU THIS MATH THAT WE WERE JUST SHOEK. WE SAW THE ANIMATION. THE BLUE AREAS, THE ANGLO AREAS, THEY WERE SLOWLY BEING PUSHED OUT INTO THE OUTLYING AREAS OF >> THIS IS HARRIS COUNTY IN 1980. THERE ARE 1,700 CENSUS TRACTS IN HARRIS COUNTY. THE MAJORITY OF ANGLO. RED, TRACTS ARE AFRICAN-AMERICAN. BASICALLY THIRD WARD AND 50s WARD, THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CORRIDOR, AND ALONG THE SHIP CHANNEL, WHERE THE LATINOS WERE. >> AND THAT WAS SO SMALL RIGHT IN THERE. >> AND A FEW PLACES IN A ROUNDABOUT WAY. >> HERE IT IS IN 2010. >> SO 2010, WE CAN SEE LATINO AND BLACK POPULATION ARE DEFINITELY CENTERED AROUND. >> SO WHAT’S GOING TO HAPPEN AS WE GO FORWARD IN TIME AND NOW THAT THERE ARE SO MANY MIXED-RACE FAMILIES. >> HOUSTON IS THE FOREFRONT OF WHAT’S HAPPENING ACROSS ALL OF AMERICA. BY 2050, ALL OF AMERICA WILL LOOK LIKE HOUSTON LOOKS LIKE TODAY OF >> DO YOU MEAN THE ETHNIC MAKE-UP OF THE CITY? >> YES. WE ARE IN THE MIDST OF THIS EPIC TRANSITION IN AMERICA, WITH ALL OF THE PEOPLE WHO CAME TO AMERICAN SHORES BETWEEN 1941 AND 1965 CAME FROM EUROPE, AND 88% OF ALL OF THE NEW IMMIGRATION THE LAST 30 YEARS IS COMING FROM ASIA, LATIN AMERICA, AND THIS NATION HAS BEEN EUROPEAN NATIONALITY IS BECOMING A MICROCOSM OF THE WORLD. >> WITH ALL OF THESE PEOPLE COMING IN, WE’VE GOT TO HAVE JOBS, AND AT ONE POINT, HOUSTON USED TO BE THE BLUE-COLLAR, DALLAS WATT WHITE-COLLAR. THAT’S REALLY, REALLY CHANGED, THOUGH, SINCE THE 1980s OF >> THAT’S RIGHT. THE GOOD BLUE-COLLAR JOBS HAVE DISAPPEARED AND EDUCATION HAS BECOME THE CRITICAL DETERMINANT OF A PERSON’S ABILITY TO EARN ENOUGH MONEY TO SUPPORT A FAMILY IN THE GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY OF THE 21st CENTURY. IT IS THE CENTRAL CHALLENGE FOR ALL OF US, AND ESPECIALLY IN HOUSTON, BECAUSE WE HAVE NOT PAID MUCH ATTENTION TO EDUCATION. YOU DIDN’T NEED EDUCATION TO MAKE MONEY IN TEXAS, AND NOW YOU DO. >> DOES THAT MEAN WE HAVE A MORE DIVERSIFIED ECONOMY THAT WE’RE MOVING INTO THAT HOUSTON WILL CONTINUE THRIVING ECONOMICALLY DESPITE THE FACT THAT OIL MAY NOT BE FRONT AND CENTER IF >> RIGHT. IT’S REAL TRAGEDIES IN THE OIL PRODUCTION WORLD OF HOUSTON. IN 1980, 82% OF ALL THE JOBS IN THE CITY WERE TIED INTO THE PRICE OF OIL, AND TODAY, SOMETHING LIKE– >> 80% OF ALL OF THE JOBS? >> WE DID OIL THE WAY DETROIT DID CARS, THE WAY SEATTLE DID AIRPLANES, THE WAY PITTSBURGH DID STEEL, WE DID OIL, AND TODAY, IT’S ABOUT 35%. TEXAS MEDICAL CENTER IS THE LARGEST KNELL COMPLEX IN THE WORLD. THE SHIP CHANNEL IS THE SECOND LARGEST PORT IN THE COUNTRY, FIFTH LARGEST PORT IN THE WORLD. WE’RE A MUCH MORE DIVERSIFIED AREA. >> AND THAT CHANGED THE MAKE-UP OF OUR CITY. >> HUNDRED THOUSAND PEOPLE WORK IN THE MEDICAL CENTER, 120,000 SCIENTISTS. HOUSTON WILL BECOME THE THIFRD COAST ALONG WITH SAN FRANCISCO AND BOSTON FOR A PLACE WITH BIOMEDICAL, BIONANO INFO. >> MEDICAL. >> AND THAT’S WHY QUALITY OF LIFE HAS BECOME SO IMPORTANTLY, BECAUSE WE HAVE TO ATTRACT THE BEST AND BRIGHTEST PEOPLE IN THE WORLD WHO CAN LIVE ANYWHERE. >> AND WE ARE ATTRACTING A LOT OF EUTHANIZING PEOPLE INTO THE CITY AS THE POPULATION OF HOUSTON AGES, HOW DOES THAT AFFECT THE FUTURE OF OUR CITY? BECAUSE WE HAVE A LOT OF PEOPLE FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD MOVING TO HOUSTON RIGHT NOW. >> AND THE OTHER BIG THING ABOUT THIS NEW IMMIGRATION IS THAT IT BIFURCATED, COMING INTO A BIFURCATED ECONOMY. ONE GROUP OF IMMIGRANTS, LARGELY ASIAN AND FORMER PRIME AND AFRICAN-AMERICANS, ARE COMING IN FAR HIGHER LEVELS OF EDUCATION HIGHER THAN ANGLOS, AND LATINOS ARE COMING WITH LOW LEVELS OF EDUCATION INTO A WORLD WHERE WE HAVE BOTH KINDS– >> THE EXTREME. >> THIS IS A POWERFUL PICTURE OF HOUSTON’S PRESENT AND FUTURE. IT’S NOT UNTIL YOU REACH PEOPLE N HARRIS COUNTY OVER THE AGE OF 63 THAT A MAJORITY OF FOLKS ARE STILL ANGLOS. >> AND THIS DARK BLUE IS THE NONHISPANIC WHITE. >> AND AS WE GET YOUNGER, THE PERCENTAGE OF GLOSS DROPS, AFRICAN-AMERICANS, LATINOS AND ABOVE ALL, LATINOS SURGES. HOARSE HERE’S WHERE EVERYBODY ELSE IS. EVERYBODY IN HARRIS COUNTY UNDER THE AGE OF 20, 51% ARE LATINOS, 19% AR AFRICAN-AMERICANS, 9%R ASIANS. IT’S A STRIKING NEW REALITY. NO FORCE IN THE WORLD IS GOING TO STOP HOUSTON OR TEXAS OR AMERICA FROM BECOMING MORE AFRICAN-AMERICAN, MORE ASIAN, MORE LATINO AND LESS ANGLO IN THE 21st CENTURY UNFOLDS. >> WHY HOUSTON? I MEAN, WE HAVE CITIES LIKE NEW YORK, LOS ANGELES, CHICAGO, WE’VE ALREADY DISCUSSED — >> SAN FRANCISCO, SEATTLE. >> HOUSTON IS THE FOURTH LARGEST CITY IN AMERICA, BUT WHEN YOU LOOK AT POPULATION GROWTH, HOUSTON IS GAINING A LOT MORE PEOPLE THAN THESE OTHER CITIES. >> HOW MUCH LONGER IS IT GOING TO TAKE US TO BYPASS CHICAGO. >> WE’LL BE THE THIRD LARGEST CITY SOMETIME AFTER 2020, BUT THE CHICAGO METROPOLITAN AREA IS A WHOLE LOT LARGER THAN THE HOUSTON METROPOLITAN AREA, AND THAT’S REALLY THE MEASURE THAT MATTERS THE MOST, BUT — WHAT WAS YOUR QUESTION AGAIN? >> WHY HOUSTON? WHY IS EVERYBODY COMING HERE? >> NO ONE PLANNED THIS. WHAT HAPPENED WAS PRODUCING LOTS OF VERY GOOD JOBS, HIGHLY SKILLED WORKERS IN ENGINEERING AND MEDICINE, LOTS OF LOW PAID SERVICE JOBS IN RESTAURANT WORK, IN CONSTRUCTION WORK. HOUSTON IS THE FIRST BIG CITY ONCE YOU COME TO THE NORTH, AND THERE’S CRITICAL MASS. PEOPLE HELP PEOPLE GET JOBS, AND IT’S SELF-PERPETUATE.

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