How to do the Primary Survey – First Aid Training – St John Ambulance

In this video we will teach you what to
do if you’ve found someone collapsed. The initial assessment is called a primary
survey. This is a quick, orderly assessment to
establish how best to treat our casualty in order of priority. We can use the initials DR. ABC or DRABC to remind us of the steps we need to follow. These initials stand for Danger, Response, Airway, Breathing and Circulation. So, when I see a casualty, first I’m going to check for any danger, to make sure it’s safe for me to approach them. I don’t want to become a casualty myself. Then I’m going to see if I can get any response from the casualty. As you approach, introduce yourself. Ask them questions to try to get a response. If they are not alert and do not respond to your voice, kneel down beside them and gently shake their shoulders ‘Hello Amy, it’s Winston, can you hear me?
Open your eyes.’ Still no response? You can pinch their ear lobe to see if they respond to pain. Depending on how the casualty responds to you will stablish a level of response. We use the AVPU scale and each letter can represent the casualty’s level of response. A – Alert, V- response to voice, P – response to pain and U – is the casualty unresponsive to any stimuli. If there’s still no response they are unresponsive and we need to check their airway. If the casualty is alert and speaking to you, you know that there is no problem with the airway. It is clear. If the casualty is unresponsive, open their airway by putting one hand on the forehead and gently tilting the head back with two fingers under the chin. Now we need to check to see if they are breathing normally. We do this by placing our ear and cheek over their nose and mouth, looking down the body to see if their chest rises and falls. We do this for 10 seconds. If the casualty is not breathing normally call for help. Ask them to call 999/112 for emergency help and bring an AED. If you are alone, call for emergency help using a mobile on speaker phone and begin CPR with chest compressions. The casualty is breathing normally, so I’m going to check their circulation. Are there any signs of severe bleeding? Look and check down the body. If you find severe bleeding, try to control the bleeding to prevent life-threatening shock. Call 999/112 for emergency help before continuing to treat the casualty. You may also need to treat them for shock. I’ve established that my casualty is not bleeding. So remember to do a primary survey:
Follow the order DR ABC. Complete each step, in that order, as quickly as possible, dealing with any life-threatening conditions as you find them. Call for emergency help – call 999/112. And that’s how we perform a primary survey. If this video has been helpful to you,
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  1. A similar acronym to remember is DRSABC, where the S stands for "Send for Help";
    If the casualty is unresponsive, call emergency services.

  2. Hi, I have one question. If the casualty is unresponsive, not breathing and has a severe arterial bleeding at the same time. What should I do first, CPR or manage the bleeding ?

  3. By the way if you are watching in the United States 999 and 112 are the British equivalents to 911 in the United States. (So call 911 not 999 or 112)

  4. Why did you not include about checking the casualty's pulse? I got thought that in my first aid training. Also, why did you not include about checking the casualty's mouth for blockages?

  5. this survery is not complete.

    I think you should use: DRS ABCDE
    danger,response,shout for help,airway,breathing,circulation,disability,exposure

    and you should alsno not forget the 4 exceptions that has priority before the protocol:
    -high energy trauma
    -severe arterial bleeding(pulsating)
    -burn(thermal or chemical)

  6. I am Thai. I can listen,speak,read,write Thai,English,mandarin Chinese. I want to learn first aid through mandarin Chinese because I want to improve my mandarin Chinese skill and learn first aid simultaneously. I can't find mandarin Chinese version ,but this video is very good for me

  7. I'm very good at First Aid because I was a cadet in the CCF when I was at school, and First Aid was part of my training.

  8. i did call 999 and 112 but none of them worked! i think Our Australian government need to do something about this country.

  9. This is good and all, but some people have trouble understanding strange accents. Try hiring someone who has done voice training and knows the standard American accent. (that is the accent reporters use). Almost everyone understands it. I hope this helps!

  10. I am a 13 year old girl who wants to be a lifeguard at a pool when I’m older. Would this help me become a lifeguard at a pool? I can’t be a lifeguard at the sea bc I hate the sea. but somebody please respond to me. Would DR ABC help me? Also I have a very loud voice so I can call for help and somebody would hear me. I want to be a lifeguard bc I want to help ppl and I want to be a hero one. Normally people think of hero’s as men but I’m a girl so 8 want to prove ppl wrong. I know nobody really wanted to know all of this but I wanted to say it👍🏻👍🏻😀😀

  11. So if they are not breathing I start doing mobile phone calls? – Isn't it better to initiate cpr at once?

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