Introduction to Female Reproductive Anatomy – 3D Anatomy Tutorial

okay so this is an introduction to female reproductive anatomy so the idea of this tutorial is not to go into huge amounts of detail but to introduce you to some of the basic elements of the female reproductive tract so what we’re looking at here is a lateral view of the pelvic viscera so anteriorly we’ve got the bladder behind that we’ve got the female reproductive system and then behind that we’ve got the rectum and the anal canal so you can see the location of this reproductive system in relation to the bladder and the digestive system behind it so the main parts that I’m going to talk about are the ovaries which are the primary female sex organ and then you’ve got the fallopian tubes or the uterine tubes as they’re also known which connects to the uterus which is this muscular sac which is where the embryo develops into a fetus which develops into a baby and then you’ve got the vagina which opens up in the perineum so if I just rotate the model around you can have a look from the anterior aspect so you’ve got the the uterus which were looking at here this you can see the superior portion of the uterus which is known as the fundus you’ve got the fallopian tubes and you’ve got the ovaries on either side so I’ve just switched to this model here of an isolated view of the female anatomy so you can see these white oval shaped structures which are the ovaries and as I mentioned before they’re the primary sex organs of the female so they are responsible for producing the female sex cells or the egg or the ovum as it’s known and this ovum is released monthly and the process of releasing the ovum from the ovary is known as ovulation so the ovaries are actually suspended in the peritoneal cavity by several ligaments and I won’t talk about these here but it’s important to know that the ovaries are intraperitoneal and they release the egg into the peritoneal cavity and what happens is that the fallopian tube have these finger-like projections distally which are known as fimbriae so you can see these little finger projections coming off the distal end of these tubes which are known as the uterine tubes and these fin vi are responsible for wafting the egg that’s released from the ovary into the tube so the uterine tube has four parts it’s got an infant Dib ulam and an puller an isthmus and an intrauterine part so you’ve got as I mentioned before you’ve got the fimbria here and then the wide distal part is known as the infundibulum and then as we come round we’ve got the ampulla which is the middle and longest part of the uterine tube and it’s the most common site for fertilization of the egg by the male sperm so that’s an important point to remember and then the medial third of the of the uterine tube is called the Isthmus and it’s the narrowest part of the tube and it opens up into the uterus so where where the whetheryou fallopian tube opens up into the uterus is called the intrauterine part so that makes sense it’s in side the uterus and it opens up into the cavity of the uterus so the uterus is this sac-like structure this hollow organ which has thick muscular walls and as you can see from this lateral view it lies at this kind of angle to the vagina so coming back to this model you can see the bladder sitting anteriorly to it and the uterus is flexed above it so there are three parts to the uterus you’ve got the dome-shaped superior part of the uterus which is called the fundus and this part of the uterus lies superiorly to the point where the uterine tubes enter into the uterus and then you’ve got the bulk of the uterus which is known as the body and this is the main part of the uterus and then in theory you’ve got the cervix of the uterus so the cervix is the neck of the uterus so remember in me that vertebra you’ve got the cervical vertebrae so it just refers to the vertebra which and the neck so cervix that means neck so the neck of the uterus protrudes into the vagina in theory so you’ve got the fundus the body and the cervix so I’ve just switched over to a simple cross-section of the uterus and I just wanted to show you the cervical portion the cervix of the uterus so I’ve outlined it in green and it’s this narrow inferior portion and where opens up into the vagina it’s called the external ass so you’ve got this external opening into the vagina and where opens up into the uterine cavity above it’s called the internal ass so I’ve just come over to this nice cross-sectional model and what I want to show you here is the way that the dome-shaped cervix protrudes into the vagina so you can see this protrusion here so by protruding into the vagina in this way the cervix creates recesses around it so anteriorly you’ve got this recess here and posteriorly you’ve got this recess here where the cervix meets the vaginal wall so you’ve got these pockets around the vagina and these are known as the fornix so you’ve got an anterior fornix and Tilly a posterior fornix behind and you’ve got two lateral furnaces so in terms of the layers of the uterus you’ve got an outer connective tissue layer which is called the peri medium so I’m drawing this on in red here and then as you can see from this cross-section you’ve got a thick middle layer of muscle and this is smooth muscle and it’s important during labour for this smooth muscle to contract and then lining the cavity of the uterus you’ve got the endometrium so you’ve got the endometrium here the muscle layer I forgot to mention is called the myometrium and then like I mentioned before you’ve got the peri medium which is the outer connective tissue covering so the endometrium which is the internal mucosal layer is interesting because it thickens during the menstrual cycle and it disintegrates at the onset of menstruation so it’s under hormonal influence so it varies in thickness during the menstrual cycle so the lower part of the female reproductive tract is the vagina and this is a fibromuscular tube and as you can see it lies anterior to the rectum and the anal canal and it lies behind the bladder so you can see the bladder here and the urethra here so those are the anatomic relationships so the vagina runs between the external vaginal orifice up to the cervix to the external ass of the cervix and this internal end of the vagina is known as the vaginal vault and just like the the uterus the vagina has three layers you’ve got the outer connective tissue layer the middle muscular layer and you’ve got the internal mucosa so rotating this model around you can see that the pelvic cavity is lined by this flat sheet of peritoneum which is continuous with the peritoneum from the abdominal cavity above and this peritoneum which sort of drapes over these pelvic viscera is known as the broad ligament and you’ve got various other ligaments attaching to the uterus and attaching to the ovaries which carry vessels and support the viscera structurally and I won’t talk about these now but it’s important to be aware of this flat sheet of peritoneum which is draped over the viscera and it’s called the broad ligament and this sheet of ligament which is draped over these organs forms various pouches so for instance anteriorly you’ve got this little pouch here called the visa Co you time pouch and posture lis you can see how this pouch forms behind the superior end of the vagina and behind the uterus and this is called the rec dough you trying pouch or the pouch of Douglas so just to be aware that this peritoneum drapes over the uterus and you can see the intraperitoneal ovary here so that’s a brief introduction to some of the elements of the female reproductive Anatomy

82 comments

  1. No problem – hope it is useful! If you could take 1 minute to fill out a feedback form on my website (only 7 quick questions) about how you found the tutorial, that would be much appreciated! (go to anatomyzone(dot)com and it is the top post) Thanks 🙂

  2. omg, its very helpful !! I will have exam the day after tommorow ! wish me luck, thanks for your video :)))))))

  3. good luck! And if you have time – please fill out a feedback form for me to let me know how you found the tutorials (go to anatomyzone(dot)com and it is the top post)! 🙂

  4. Random Question: Do you have any videos on human kinesiology? Would you be willing to make videos about human kinesiology and more sports related videos. Thanks.

  5. the topic is such that thngs r simply getting printed in my heart….hahahaahaha…all n all its very well explanable!!!!

  6. Amazing video btw… Well explained..But there is a slight error…in explaining d anatomical position of the vagina..i suppose you meant to say the urinary bladder is located ANTERIORLY and the rectum and anal canal is located POSTERIORLY… Thank you..

  7. This was really well done, out of curiosity what program are you using to display the 3D models? I am currently studying anatomy for school and was looking for a good program like this to be able to get a better idea of where things are in 3D space.

  8. @AnatomyZone I really love your tutorials!! Thank you soo much! I have got a random question but it's giving me heart aches since I can't find the logic in it yet… could you tell me why the Clitoris/ Penis drains into the inguinal region. I mean why couldn't their regional lymph nodes be in the internal iliac region since the clitoris and the penis are mainly supplied by branches of the internal iliac… Thank you so much in advance. 😀

  9. I have a question if someone had fibroids, had children via c section is it possible to sew a fibroid to the stomach it sounds crazy to me but I'm not educated in this area

  10. Kayla Williams
    it doesnt matter who explained it only matter who explained very well
    don"t be femenist,appreciate it
    THANKS v much Anatomy Zone .))

  11. Hello, your videos are very instructive and helpful, thank you for providing these videos. I have a question here. Isn't the intramural part of the uterine tube the narrowest part? it's been said so in our lectures and it appears to be the narrowest in many atlas images.

  12. what i could not understand in all those years and all those books u made me do so within minutes…. HATS off to u!! all videos are very nice and well made.. keep making them and keep making life of med school student easier.. God bless you

  13. no you are wrong;ovary is the only abdominal organ not covered by peritoneum-just check from Ten Teachers

  14. cervical ca is associated with HPV 16 and 18, most common site in the transformation zone.

    Vaginal mucosa is stratified squamous non keratinized

    bring this to the exam. it comes out

  15. Hi, im just wondering why there are two ovaries and only one egg release during ovulation? Cant find the answer. Thanks

  16. beautifully explained .. and thank u soooo much .. it was amazingly explained .. and clearly words were spoken and explained….

  17. I can't believe this knowledge comes from human being…like so many other things ie mathematics, science,tech…its findings of extraterrestrial in our life…

  18. The VAGINA, starts with one finger, self lubricating, changes it’s own fluids approximately every 30 days, it only has one problem it’s management system can be very bitchy and uncooperative at times.

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