Mark Plotkin: What the people of the Amazon know that you don’t

Now, I’m an ethnobotanist. That’s a scientist who
works in the rainforest to document how people use local plants. I’ve been doing this for a long time, and I want to tell you, these people know these forests
and these medicinal treasures better than we do and
better than we ever will. But also, these cultures, these indigenous cultures, are disappearing much faster
than the forests themselves. And the greatest and
most endangered species in the Amazon Rainforest is not the jaguar, it’s not the harpy eagle, it’s the isolated and uncontacted tribes. Now four years ago, I injured my
foot in a climbing accident and I went to the doctor. She gave me heat, she gave me cold, aspirin, narcotic painkillers, anti-inflammatories, cortisone shots. It didn’t work. Several months later, I was in the northeast Amazon, walked into a village, and the shaman said, “You’re limping.” And I’ll never forget
this as long as I live. He looked me in the face and he said, “Take off your shoe and give
me your machete.” (Laughter) He walked over to a palm tree and carved off a fern, threw it in the fire, applied it to my foot, threw it in a pot of water, and had me drink the tea. The pain disappeared for seven months. When it came back, I went
to see the shaman again. He gave me the same treatment, and I’ve been cured for three years now. Who would you rather be treated by? (Applause) Now, make no mistake — Western medicine is the most successful system
of healing ever devised, but there’s plenty of holes in it. Where’s the cure for breast cancer? Where’s the cure for schizophrenia? Where’s the cure for acid reflux? Where’s the cure for insomnia? The fact is that these people can sometimes, sometimes, sometimes cure things we cannot. Here you see a medicine man
in the northeast Amazon treating leishmaniasis, a really nasty protozoal disease that afflicts 12 million
people around the world. Western treatment are
injections of antimony. They’re painful, they’re expensive, and they’re probably
not good for your heart; it’s a heavy metal. This man cures it with three plants
from the Amazon Rainforest. This is the magic frog. My colleague, the late
great Loren McIntyre, discoverer of the source
lake of the Amazon, Laguna McIntyre in the Peruvian Andes, was lost on the Peru-Brazil
border about 30 years ago. He was rescued by a group of
isolated Indians called the Matsés. They beckoned for him to follow
them into the forest, which he did. There, they took out palm leaf baskets. There, they took out these
green monkey frogs — these are big suckers,
they’re like this — and they began licking them. It turns out, they’re
highly hallucinogenic. McIntyre wrote about this and it was read
by the editor of High Times magazine. You see that ethnobotanists have
friends in all sorts of strange cultures. This guy decided he would go down
to the Amazon and give it a whirl, or give it a lick, and
he did, and he wrote, “My blood pressure went through the roof, I lost full control of
my bodily functions, I passed out in a heap, I woke up in a hammock six hours later, felt like God for two days.” (Laughter) An Italian chemist read this and said, “I’m not really interested in the theological
aspects of the green monkey frog. What’s this about the
change in blood pressure?” Now, this is an Italian chemist who’s working on a new treatment
for high blood pressure based on peptides in the skin
of the green monkey frog, and other scientists are looking at a cure for drug-resistant Staph aureus. How ironic if these isolated
Indians and their magic frog prove to be one of the cures. Here’s an ayahuasca shaman in the northwest Amazon, in
the middle of a yage ceremony. I took him to Los Angeles to
meet a foundation officer looking for support for monies
to protect their culture. This fellow looked at the
medicine man, and he said, “You didn’t go to
medical school, did you?” The shaman said, “No, I did not.” He said, “Well, then what can
you know about healing?” The shaman looked at him and he said, “You know what? If you have
an infection, go to a doctor. But many human afflictions are diseases
of the heart, the mind and the spirit. Western medicine can’t
touch those. I cure them.” (Applause) But all is not rosy in learning from
nature about new medicines. This is a viper from Brazil, the venom of which was studied at
the Universidade de São Paulo here. It was later developed
into ACE inhibitors. This is a frontline treatment
for hypertension. Hypertension causes over 10 percent of all deaths on the planet every day. This is a $4 billion industry based on venom from a Brazilian snake, and the Brazilians did not get a nickel. This is not an acceptable
way of doing business. The rainforest has been called the
greatest expression of life on Earth. There’s a saying in Suriname
that I dearly love: “The rainforests hold answers
to questions we have yet to ask.” But as you all know,
it’s rapidly disappearing. Here in Brazil, in the Amazon, around the world. I took this picture from a small plane flying over the eastern border
of the Xingu indigenous reserve in the state of Mato Grosso
to the northwest of here. The top half of the picture, you see where the Indians live. The line through the middle is the eastern border of the reserve. Top half Indians, bottom half white guys. Top half wonder drugs, bottom half just a bunch
of skinny-ass cows. Top half carbon sequestered
in the forest where it belongs, bottom half carbon in the atmosphere where it’s driving climate change. In fact, the number two cause of carbon being released
into the atmosphere is forest destruction. But in talking about destruction, it’s important to keep in mind that the Amazon is the mightiest
landscape of all. It’s a place of beauty and wonder. The biggest anteater in the world lives in the rain forest, tips the scale at 90 pounds. The goliath bird-eating spider is the world’s largest spider. It’s found in the Amazon as well. The harpy eagle wingspan
is over seven feet. And the black cayman — these monsters can tip the
scale at over half a ton. They’re known to be man-eaters. The anaconda, the largest snake, the capybara, the largest rodent. A specimen from here in Brazil tipped the scale at 201 pounds. Let’s visit where these creatures live, the northeast Amazon, home to the Akuriyo tribe. Uncontacted peoples hold a
mystical and iconic role in our imagination. These are the people who
know nature best. These are the people who truly live in total harmony with nature. By our standards, some would
dismiss these people as primitive. “They don’t know how to make fire, or they didn’t when they
were first contacted.” But they know the forest far
better than we do. The Akuriyos have 35 words for honey, and other Indians look up to them as being the true masters
of the emerald realm. Here you see the face of my friend Pohnay. When I was a teenager rocking out to the Rolling Stones in my
hometown of New Orleans, Pohnay was a forest nomad roaming the jungles of
the northeast Amazon in a small band, looking for game, looking for medicinal plants, looking for a wife, in other small nomadic bands. But it’s people like these that know things that we don’t, and they have lots of
lessons to teach us. However, if you go into most of
the forests of the Amazon, there are no indigenous peoples. This is what you find: rock carvings which indigenous peoples, uncontacted peoples, used to sharpen
the edge of the stone axe. These cultures that once danced, made love, sang to the gods, worshipped the forest, all that’s left is an imprint in stone,
as you see here. Let’s move to the western Amazon, which is really the epicenter
of isolated peoples. Each of these dots represents a small, uncontacted tribe, and the big reveal today is we believe
there are 14 or 15 isolated groups in the Colombian Amazon alone. Why are these people isolated? They know we exist, they
know there’s an outside world. This is a form of resistance. They have chosen to remain isolated, and I think it is their
human right to remain so. Why are these the tribes
that hide from man? Here’s why. Obviously, some of this
was set off in 1492. But at the turn of the last century was the rubber trade. The demand for natural rubber, which came from the Amazon, set off the botanical
equivalent of a gold rush. Rubber for bicycle tires, rubber for automobile tires, rubber for zeppelins. It was a mad race to get that rubber, and the man on the left, Julio Arana, is one of the true thugs of the story. His people, his company, and other companies like them killed, massacred, tortured,
butchered Indians like the Witotos you see on the
right hand side of the slide. Even today, when people
come out of the forest, the story seldom has a happy ending. These are Nukaks. They
were contacted in the ’80s. Within a year, everybody over 40 was dead. And remember, these
are preliterate societies. The elders are the libraries. Every time a shaman dies, it’s as if a library has burned down. They have been forced off their lands. The drug traffickers have
taken over the Nukak lands, and the Nukaks live as beggars in public parks in eastern Colombia. From the Nukak lands, I want to
take you to the southwest, to the most spectacular
landscape in the world: Chiribiquete National Park. It was surrounded by three isolated tribes and thanks to the Colombian government
and Colombian colleagues, it has now expanded. It’s bigger than the state of Maryland. It is a treasure trove
of botanical diversity. It was first explored botanically in 1943 by my mentor, Richard Schultes, seen here atop the Bell Mountain, the sacred mountains of the Karijonas. And let me show you
what it looks like today. Flying over Chiribiquete, realize that these lost world
mountains are still lost. No scientist has been atop them. In fact, nobody has been
atop the Bell Mountain since Schultes in ’43. And we’ll end up here
with the Bell Mountain just to the east of the picture. Let me show you what it looks like today. Not only is this a treasure
trove of botanical diversity, not only is it home to
three isolated tribes, but it’s the greatest treasure trove of pre-Colombian art in the world: over 200,000 paintings. The Dutch scientist Thomas van der Hammen described this as the Sistine Chapel
of the Amazon Rainforest. But move from Chiribiquete
down to the southeast, again in the Colombian Amazon. Remember, the Colombian Amazon
is bigger than New England. The Amazon’s a big forest, and Brazil’s got a big part of it, but not all of it. Moving down to these two national parks, Cahuinari and Puré in the Colombian Amazon — that’s the Brazilian
border to the right — it’s home to several groups of isolated and uncontacted peoples. To the trained eye, you
can look at the roofs of these malocas, these longhouses, and see that there’s cultural diversity. These are, in fact, different tribes. As isolated as these areas are, let me show you how the
outside world is crowding in. Here we see trade and transport
increased in Putumayo. With the diminishment of
the Civil War in Colombia, the outside world is showing up. To the north, we have illegal gold mining, also from the east, from Brazil. There’s increased hunting and fishing
for commercial purposes. We see illegal logging
coming from the south, and drug runners are trying to
move through the park and get into Brazil. This, in the past, is why you didn’t mess with isolated Indians. And if it looks like this
picture is out of focus because it was taken
in a hurry, here’s why. (Laughter) This looks like — (Applause) This looks like a hangar
from the Brazilian Amazon. This is an art exhibit in Havana, Cuba. A group called Los Carpinteros. This is their perception of why you
shouldn’t mess with uncontacted Indians. But the world is changing. These are Mashco-Piros
on the Brazil-Peru border who stumbled out of the jungle because they were essentially chased out by drug runners and timber people. And in Peru, there’s
a very nasty business. It’s called human safaris. They will take you in to isolated
groups to take their picture. Of course, when you give them
clothes, when you give them tools, you also give them diseases. We call these “inhuman safaris.” These are Indians again
on the Peru border, who were overflown by flights
sponsored by missionaries. They want to get in there
and turn them into Christians. We know how that turns out. What’s to be done? Introduce technology
to the contacted tribes, not the uncontacted tribes, in a culturally sensitive way. This is the perfect marriage of
ancient shamanic wisdom and 21st century technology. We’ve done this now with over 30 tribes, mapped, managed and increased protection of over 70 million acres
of ancestral rainforest. (Applause) So this allows the Indians to take control of their environmental
and cultural destiny. They also then set up guard houses to keep outsiders out. These are Indians, trained
as indigenous park rangers, patrolling the borders and keeping the outside world at bay. This is a picture of actual contact. These are Chitonahua Indians on the Brazil-Peru border. They’ve come out of the jungle asking for help. They were shot at, their malocas, their
longhouses, were burned. Some of them were massacred. Using automatic weapons to
slaughter uncontacted peoples is the single most despicable and
disgusting human rights abuse on our planet today, and it has to stop. (Applause) But let me conclude by saying, this work can be spiritually rewarding, but it’s difficult and
it can be dangerous. Two colleagues of mine
passed away recently in the crash of a small plane. They were serving the forest to protect those uncontacted tribes. So the question is, in conclusion, is what the future holds. These are the Uray people in Brazil. What does the future hold for them, and what does the future hold for us? Let’s think differently. Let’s make a better world. If the climate’s going to change, let’s have a climate that changes for
the better rather than the worse. Let’s live on a planet full of luxuriant vegetation, in which isolated peoples can remain in isolation, can maintain that mystery and that knowledge if they so choose. Let’s live in a world where the shamans live in these forests and heal themselves and us with their mystical plants and their sacred frogs. Thanks again. (Applause)


  1. Title is 100% accurate. The Amazon was around, say, at least one or two years before Amazon was a company that took the forest's name.

  2. LOL at the marginally intelligent/mildly retarded trolls complaining about the misleading title that should contain "forest" after the word amazon to make things clear. Oh well, must feed my brain. Time to go order a book from the people of the Amazon.

  3. Homeopathic nonsense like this kills more people than the modern medicine he denigrates. Just look at Steve Jobs's preventable death from one of the most treatable cancers there is, discovered extremely early in his case.

  4. So basically learning how to monetize and capitalize on unrevealed cures within the Amazon to be sold and marketed upon the world stage, interesting😴.

  5. Interesting video with some great points but I'm not sure about the biggest human rights violation being an attack on tribes. What about North Korean concentration camps? Or the torture and murder of journalists and activists by corrupt eastern governments? It made a nice impact but I'm not sure it's quite true.

  6. An interesting read on North/South Americas (from 2002, but still interesting)…

  7. if we don't stop capitalism, someone will colonise these people and reduce them to reservations so he can own something no one should own

  8. Oh well hooray for anecdotes.  Feel free to support everything you've pitched with peer reviewed evidence.  Let's not forget that other forms of 'medicine' is not only unproven, but often based entirely on misguided belief and may or may not work.

  9. It sucks that so little is known about the sort of medicine that he speaks of. I'm sure it doesn't help that a lot of it isn't profitable to research, since few have much potential to be patented. Same can be said about lots of eastern medicine. I'm skeptical when people lavishly praise the wonders of alternative medicine, but I fully admit that not enough is known about them, and I'm sure many of them can be useful to the developed world as well.

  10. I don't think this is going to work out as he might hope. The first cities began in Mesopotamia when the written word developed. It was the ability to document history that made people give up their tribal traditions. There was no longer any need to learn from their environments or from their elders as knowledge became often quite literally set in stone. The advent of the Greek alphabet 3000 years ago made the wisdom of the elders accessible to everyone in society. Written language had previously been very difficult to learn and not very versatile even once mastered, largely due to the pictographic and syllabic form. It seems probable that these tribes would follow revolutions of a similar kind. It seems likely that the different kind of social hierarchy made available by written law will destroy their cultures; Communal living will be replaced by private property and class structure.

  11. Anechdotes are not reliable evidence?  The indigenous people through trial and error have found compounds that alter human body chemistry.  No doubt about that and some of them are not placebos, and have actual medicine properties, no doubt about that.  But which ones?  We need systematic controlled science to determine that.  If this guy has scientific evidence for treatements that are superior to western medicine, he has an ethical duty to scientifically show that it's true.

  12. We all are just speaking sitting infront of a computer…their are people who really working hard to protect these species..lets do something for the future generation before the last breath.

  13. They already have cures for all he listed, but there would be no profit to made in releasing the cures. The cure for cancer has been around FOREVER. But cancer is such a profitable disease they will NEVER release it.

  14. On the one hand, yes there's a lot we don't know which these supposedly primitive people can teach us. However on the other hand I think he might be overselling this a bit or at the very least not telling us about all the stupid believes this people also have. The idea that all our problems can be solved by trekking though the forest is  also stupid. But maybe this hyperbolic (major overselling) presentation is important because clearly this is an area that is so often overlooked? Maybe? I don't know. Does the ends justify the means? Is fudging with the truth fine if all we get is a few new types of aspirin, maybe a new flu or inflammation treatment and a lot of unhappy cancer researchers?

  15. Those who view the world through a civilized lens always think they know better..and yet they never have…the comments reflect this perfectly.

  16. Science and western medicine tests these claims, isolates the active chemicals and develops them further. The most effective painkiller was synthesised from a jellyfish sting chemical. Science cuts through the bs and takes the things that work. However the people;communities and environment do need protecting but that does not mean they have better medicine/knowledge than the developecd world. He does not even consider a placebo effect in any of this.

  17. Weve must do even better then those people ,,,, who are not technically living harmonically with all beings… the forests unquestionable essential! the life style there lived may have caused the growth of predators as norm which is not acceptable, not eternic and infinitely loving like Ayahuasca.

    ~ Evolvements crucial ~

  18. Hummm.. Funny how white ppl suddenly want to help minorities when there's great benefits involved. Maybe slave trade wouldn't exist at that time if they had found out that aboriginals know a lot. But good job though..

  19. As much as I am for leaving them alone… its just a false hope. The population of this planet is growing very fast. So does various things such as crime, logging…etc. Eventually there will be no land where isolated tribes still exist. 

  20. this is an amazing video, but the title should be something about protecting the indigenous people of the amazon.  he doesnt talk much about what they know that we dont…

  21. …No words…a prayer for the eyes of our hearts to be open to what is True and Right for all..because…we are killing ourselves, slowly.

  22. I think there's a time and a place for both technology and nature. I agree that our priority is skewed and we need to be more harmonious with nature, but there are ways to do that besides dropping everything and living in the woods. Also, why are you saying "Western medicine" when these tribes are as far West as us? 

  23. Although I do have some issues with his analytic framework / lens this is a really interesting TEDX lecture. The speaker erroneously makes that assumption that Indigenous people are "pre-literate". This is not so, we read nature, the sky, animal behaviour and so on … . He also refers to a critical element of our symbolic literacy system as "art" when it is so much more than that. I also do not like that he refers to the desire to live in isolation as "resistence" – this too is an assumption mapped on top of what is Indigenous genuine agency. Regardless of his limitations, it is worthy of watching.

  24. someone today (2011)  has the same chances of being cured from cancer from modern medicine as they did in 1919
    These people have an incentive to learn how to heal people effectively. That incentive is do, or watch your peer die. Modern medicine has an incentive to sell you pills. Granted, dead people don't buy pills, but neither do healed people. Call me an extremist, but I'm ready to bet that if I invent a pill that instantly solves all cancer and is dirt cheap, I will be assassinated. Many billions of dollars in growth annually depend on people being sold hundreds of pills. Depression and pain are the easiest, you just give them highly addictive drugs like benzodiazepines, and pill form heroin, AKA oxycontin.
    In the forest if you can't walk you can't hunt or grab my dinner up a tree, and in the forest if you die I lose someone close to me.
    Capitalism is currently the biggest attack on human health on planet earth.

  25. 5:15 is so true. Foreign researchers have and are still trying to do that to Jamaica. They try to smuggle our endemic species that have medicinal properties and claim it as their own. They have also tried to claim Canasol (ganja-based eye treatment for glaucoma) which was invented by a Jamaican scientist as their own. Smh

  26. Summary of video:  I'm smart. You're not.  I lecture rich, pseudo-intellectuals on how stupid they are.  (Even though Amazon residents don't build hospitals, they get high.)  Instead of being excited about the undiscovered treasures in Amazonian flora,  I collect hefty speaking fees and live a privileged life scolding you stupid, greedy white people.  Yeah, I am better than the rest of you because I spend a few months out of the year irritating  natives into getting me high and treating my aches and pains. (sorry guys nothing for you…I got my high; get your own)  Thank you, you dolts in the audience who somehow feel absolved from your complicity in the destruction of the Amazon because you clap at my snarky, self-righteous comments.  Oh and Christians are stupid .  TED audience will eat this 'we're so smart' BS up….   (Really  stick figures, scribbles and monochromatic painting is to be compared to the Sistine Chapel??? someone needs to take art lesson which don't include finger painting.)

  27. I'm so shocked at the comments here. Such closed minds. I knew exactly what the title meant, everything stated made perfect sense to me and the lack of people's knowledge or willingness to understand is astounding. It's absolutely barbaric how these people have been treated by white folk, I'm embarrassed to be white when I look back upon history. I look forward to the day that I may be in a position to be able to travel to some of these tribes and experience their love and compassion for myself.

  28. Funny that these tribes are called "isolated". We are the ones who are isolated from natured they are perfectly integrated and one with nature. We mainly perceive nature thorugh our screens wheres they are in direct contact with nature. Its paradox that the growing digital connection disconnects us more and more from nature. Even when we are outside we are disconnected.  We go jogging with plugged in music and no eyes for wildlife. For one split second we look at a beatiful panorama view and then watch for hours how many likes the picture of it it will get on facebook. This madness is also called progress.

  29. Good stuff Plotkin, truly motivational, keep the good research/knowledge coming. Preservation of these peoples and the environment are key.

  30. To those who question the main point of this talk i.e. Preserving 'primitive people': Do you realise modern humans are changing everything? Millions of years of ecological development are being stamped out, the same way gangsters with machine guns slaughter tribespeople. What is being lost is how to live as one with nature, fully self-sufficient, happy and slave to no one. Instead we live as slaves to a system we don't understand, making us individually powerless, pissed off, cynical, unwilling, and at times full of disrespect. As the speaker says, the diseases the shamans have really mastered are those of the heart and mind.

  31. Great talk and I loved how it highlighted how important it is that we protect these people as they really are the last free people on the planet.

  32. at time 6:44 a spider that eats birds?  (it is not uncommon for this species to kill and consume a variety of insects and small terrestrial vertebrates)

  33. I thought he was gonna explain how Amazon could get one of thousands of items to my door in just two days. He didn't. 🙁

  34. i would do just about anything to live like these people .all life in this "civilized" world has been reduced to an economic unit.people in suits with high incomes given automatic respect when sociopathy is their trade .dress in reused cotton clothing,dont own a pretty car ,get treated like a criminal  .those who consume the most have automatic "rights"  ('cause they "earned" them) while the lowest income ,consuming the least,are shunned ,exploited,and criminalized  just like all other life forms here that arent of massive economic benefit to the consumers and profiteers.any life form  that cannot be enslaved to "produce" for profit are eliminated as "pests" and "invasive species"."civilization" was a disgusting idea ,and it all came with patriarchy .add the "L" back into the "word of god" and it becomes what they really worship : the world of gold

  35. Doctors use allopathic chemical non carbon drugs to treat a carbon 12 based life form that's compromised of 6 protons 6 electrons and 6 neutrons. Big pharma kills over 300% more than all illegal drugs and activity combined. They use their profits to buy airtime and donate to colleges then compromise there curriculums to teach drugs to our modern doctors or legal providers of drugs synthesized from nature. Then these doctors Join the AMA that restricts them from using nutrition. The AMA enrollment is down to 28% so now they are trying to be a part of the healthcare program. On average 47 people a day die because of medical malpractice. I think you need to think about the doctor comment. Dr Kotsanis is the only one I will trust but not a cure since 1957. Vitamin deficiency and side effects if the drugs are causing our problems not to mention GMOs and aspartame. One drug alone killed more than the Vietnam war before it was pulled vioxx. Germany cures people with stuff invented here that's safe but the FDA won't pass it. They just allowed the Burzynski drug. When the truth is known I will still be here so keep trusting your mainstream dr and see how healthy you stay. Im healthy as a rock so good luck I'll pray for you and thank God for people like Mark Plotkin

  36. Cancer is caused by our levels of trypsinogen dropping and hypoxia not to mention a vitamin D3 deficiency. Too many foods are trypsinogen inhibitors.

  37. Imfrom Brasil, i liked the frog myself its a wonderfull experience, its called SAPO  i advise, everyone to come down and have a taste . . . ..

  38. "They want to turn them into Christians…We all know how that turns out…"

    Ummmm, it turns out good? I haven't heard any negative stories of Christians spreading the gospel to isolated tribes. Unless you mean the stories of Christians that have died for this cause, which they are more than often happy to die for.

  39. This loser makes no mention of animal agricultures role in the destruction of the rain forest. 91% of rainforest destruction is due to animal agriculture. 2 acres of rainforest are lost every second to grow feed for or to graze cattle. this is just a corporate shill staging a platform to boost his own ego. he actually made me feel so gross i have to take a shower.

  40. Thank you so much, I have been dreaming of people like you and you do exist! Thank you from deep down my heart, tears are running on my chicks, tears of love and hope. May you be blessed. I wished I could work with you, to save the heart of the Amazon and all its beings. One Love

  41. Unfortunately his reference to the Large Monkey Tree Frog(Phyllomedusa bicolor) is incorrect. You do not lick it, nor did some of the people referenced in the video licked it. This medicine is taken in thru the skin via the lymphatic system. It is not hallucinogen at all.I love his intentions but not completely accurate.

  42. Reading the comments in here I can see why the world is so fucked up. So much narrow minds, in order to validade one true people has to exclude all other trues. Like our president says…."Saaaad".

  43. How many people do not understand that it is about saving the Amazon rainforest and its people. How they have not heard that they are massacring the indigenous people for usurping their territory ?. The indolent who closes his eyes to evil, also becomes an accomplice to the crime.

  44. I wouldn’t trust anything this man says. In his book “Soul Craft” he refers to the wisdom of a so called Native American teacher named Harley Swift Deer Reagan. Harley Reagan is a total fraud and not even Native American. He is a wannabe plastic medicine man he is pretending to be something he is not.

  45. Where's this cure for this and this? I'm guessing these tribes don't eat processed but only eat real food veggies and meat. And they don't have cell phones that produce radio frequencys that harm the body. Don't have WiFi which gives off radiation. More advanced societies do this to ourselves. We allow others to think and program us. Not all but a lot will not take steps to better our health. Literally technology we surround ourselves with is slowly killing us.

  46. The growth of the human population is going to bring even more power hungry groups. Only way to stop this is the depopulation of 🌎. Help save the planet, KILL YOURESELF!!! #SaveTheNon-TechUsingPeople

  47. Dr. Plotkin, so was it your foot that you injured or was sit an ear infection that a Shaman cured? I ask because in this video you say it was your injured foot, but in the video "Maps, Magic, and Medicine in the Rain Forest" uploaded by the "Bioneers" YouTube channel, you clearly state that it was an ear infection you had and later got cured by the Shaman. You give the same versions of the story in both videos, so can you please clarify my confusion?

  48. Beautiful presentation, very inspirational. Anyone who enjoyed this talk should read his book Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice. Mark Plotkin is most indefinitely significant and relevant in our times.

  49. Unfortunately the destruction of the Amazon forest will go on for some time. In 2018 the stupid Brazilian people have elected BOZOnaro as their new president who doesn't believe in any of the benefits Amazon forest can offer.

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