PBS NewsHour full episode

>> Woodruff: GOOD EVENING, I’M JUDY WOODRUFF. ON THE NEWSHOUR TONIGHT, A SECRET MISSION– PRESIDENT TRUMP CONFIRMS THAT THE C.I.A. DIRECTOR WHOM HE’S NOMINATED TO BE SECRETARY OF STATE, MET WITH NORTH KOREA’S LEADER KIM JONG- UN. WHAT THIS MEANS FOR NUCLEAR NEGOTIATIONS GOING FORWARD. THEN, WE REMEMBER THE MATRIARCH OF A POLITICAL DYNASTY. REFLECTIONS ON THE LIFE AND LEGACY OF BARBARA BUSH. >> SHE HAD A VERY FORTUNATE LIFE AND A VERY FORTUNATE END IN MANY WAYS. >> Woodruff: AND, WHAT’S BEHIND THE RACIAL DISPARITY IN MATERNAL MORTALITY IN THE U.S. AND WHAT CAN BE DONE TO BRIDGE THE GAP. ALL THAT ON TONIGHT’S PBS NEWSHOUR. >> MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY: ♪ ♪ ♪ MOVING OUR ECONOMY FOR 160 YEARS. BNSF, THE ENGINE THAT CONNECTS US. >> BABBEL. A LANGUAGE APP THAT TEACHES REAL-LIFE CONVERSATIONS IN A NEW LANGUAGE, LIKE SPANISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, ITALIAN, AND MORE. BABBEL’S 10-15 MINUTE LESSONS ARE AVAILABLE AS AN APP, OR ONLINE. MORE INFORMATION ON babbel.com. >> SUPPORTING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS TO THE WORLD’S MOST PRESSING PROBLEMS– skollfoundation.org. >> THE LEMELSON FOUNDATION. COMMITTED TO IMPROVING LIVES THROUGH INVENTION. IN THE U.S. AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. ON THE WEB AT lemelson.org. >> SUPPORTED BY THE JOHN D. AND CATHERINE T. MacARTHUR FOUNDATION. COMMITTED TO BUILDING A MORE JUST, VERDANT AND PEACEFUL WORLD. MORE INFORMATION AT macfound.org >> AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS: >> THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU. >> Woodruff: THE NATION’S CHIEF SPY, AND POSSIBLY, SOON-TO-BE CHIEF DIPLOMAT, HAS WASHINGTON BUZZING TONIGHT. MIKE POMPEO’S CLANDESTINE MISSION TO PYONGYANG SOUGHT TO LAY THE GROUNDWORK FOR A U.S. – NORTH KOREA SUMMIT. WILLIAM BRANGHAM BEGINS OUR COVERAGE. >> Brangham: THE NEWS BROKE LAST NIGHT JUST AS PRESIDENT TRUMP WAS HOSTING JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER SHINZO ABE AT MR. TRUMP’S PRIVATE CLUB IN PALM BEACH, FLORIDA. THIS MORNING, MR. TRUMP CONFIRMED THAT MIKE POMPEO, C.I.A. DIRECTOR AND SECRETARY OF STATE-DESIGNATE HAD MET SECRETLY WITH NORTH KOREAN LEADER KIM JONG UN OVER EASTER WEEKEND, IN NORTH KOREA. THE PRESIDENT TWEETED: “THE MEETING WENT VERY SMOOTHLY AND A GOOD RELATIONSHIP WAS FORMED. DETAILS OF SUMMIT ARE BEING WORKED OUT NOW.” THAT UNPRECEDENTED SUMMIT COULD COME IN MAY OR EARLY JUNE, AND THE EFFORT TO ROLL BACK NORTH KOREA’S NUCLEAR PROGRAM WILL BE TOPIC A. AT HIS CONFIRMATION HEARING LAST THURSDAY, POMPEO SPOKE HOPEFULLY ABOUT THE UPCOMING TRUMP-KIM SUMMIT. >> I’M OPTIMISTIC THAT THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT CAN SET THE CONDITIONS FOR THAT APPROPRIATELY SO THAT THE PRESIDENT AND THE NORTH KOREAN LEADER CAN HAVE THAT CONVERSATION, WILL SET US DOWN THE COURSE OF ACHIEVING A DIPLOMATIC OUTCOME THAT AMERICA SO DESPERATELY, AMERICA AND THE WORLD SO DESPERATELY NEED. >> Brangham: THE C.I.A. DIRECTOR NEVER MENTIONED, IN PUBLIC OR BEHIND CLOSED DOORS, THAT HE HAD ALREADY MET WITH KIM. THE CHAIRMAN OF THE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE, REPUBLICAN BOB CORKER, WELCOMED THE NEWS TODAY. >> I’M FINE WITH IT. I REALLY AM. I’VE KNOWN FOR A LONG, LONG TIME THAT THE BACKCHANNELS WE’VE HAD WITH NORTH KOREA HAVE BEEN THROUGH OUR INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES AND THE C.I.A. IN PARTICULAR, SO I THINK IT’S NATURAL HE WOULD BE A PERSON THAT WOULD BE A FIRST CONTACT. >> Brangham: BUT THE COMMITTEE’S RANKING DEMOCRAT, BOB MENENDEZ, WAS HIGHLY CRITICAL OF POMPEO’S OMISSION, AND SAID THAT AS A RESULT, HE’LL OPPOSE HIS NOMINATION. >> IF TRUTH AND BEING FORTHCOMING AS THE SECRETARY OF STATE NOMINEE IS ONE OF THE STANDARDS WE’D LIKE TO SEE FOR THE NEXT SECRETARY OF STATE, I THINK HE FAILED THAT. >> Brangham: POMPEO, WHILE ON THE HILL TODAY LOBBYING FOR HIS NOMINATION, WOULDN’T ANSWER QUESTIONS ABOUT THE VISIT. DESPITE THAT, PRESIDENT TRUMP WAVED OFF ANY CONCERNS TODAY ABOUT HIS NOMINEE’S PROSPECTS. >> I THINK HE’S GOING TO COME THROUGH. I THINK MIKE POMPEO IS EXTRAORDINARY. I THINK MIKE POMPEO WILL GO DOWN AS ONE OF THE GREAT SECRETARY OF STATES. >> Brangham: CHINA’S LEADER XI JINPING HAD HIS OWN SUMMIT WITH KIM JONG UN, IN BEIJING, LAST MONTH. TODAY, A SPOKESWOMAN FOR CHINA’S FOREIGN MINISTRY AGAIN ENCOURAGED THE U.S. TO FORMALIZE ITS OWN SUMMIT PLANS. >> ( translated ): WE WELCOME THE UNITED STATES AND NORTH KOREA BEGINNING DIRECT CONTACTS AND DIALOGUES. AS THE SAYING GOES, WELL BEGUN IS HALF DONE. WE HOPE THE DIALOGUE WILL BE CARRIED OUT SMOOTHLY AND YIELD GOOD OUTCOMES. >> Brangham: JAPAN IS LESS ENTHUSIASTIC ABOUT ALL THIS, AND NORTH KOREA FIGURED HIGH ON THE TRUMP-ABE AGENDA THIS WEEK. BUT THE PRIME MINISTER WAS CAREFUL NOT TO SOUND CRITICAL, WHEN HE SPOKE TO REPORTERS YESTERDAY. >> ( translated ): BOTH JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES HAVE BEEN DEMONSTRATING LEADERSHIP IN APPLYING THE MAXIMUM PRESSURE CAMPAIGN AGAINST NORTH KOREA WHICH ACTUALLY SUCCESSFULLY MADE THE NORTH KOREAN SIDE START SEEKING DIALOGUE WITH US. SO IT IS FAIR TO SAY THAT OUR APPROACH HAS PROVEN TO BE SUCCESSFUL AND THE RIGHT ONE. >> Brangham: AT THE SAME TIME, TOKYO IS DEMANDING THAT NORTH KOREA ABANDONS ITS MEDIUM-RANGE BALLISTIC MISSILES, THE KIND THAT HAVE ALREADY FLOWN OVER PARTS OF JAPAN. THE JAPANESE ARE ALSO INSISTING ON THE RELEASE OF THEIR CITIZENS WHO WERE ABDUCTED BY THE NORTH DECADES AGO. MEANWHILE, DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH KOREA ARE ALSO PICKING UP STEAM. KIM JUNG UN AND SOUTH KOREA’S PRESIDENT MOON JAE IN ARE TO MEET NEXT WEEK IN THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE BETWEEN THEIR NATIONS. THEY HOPE TO LAY THE GROUNDWORK FOR A PEACE TREATY FORMALLY ENDING THE KOREAN WAR. FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR, I’M WILLIAM BRANGHAM. >> Woodruff: WE’LL GET THE TAKE OF ONE OF PRESIDENT TRUMP’S ADVISERS ON THE POMPEO VISIT TO NORTH KOREA, LATER IN THE PROGRAM. IN THE DAY’S OTHER NEWS, INTERNATIONAL INSPECTORS WERE AGAIN DENIED ACCESS TO THE SITE OF A SUSPECTED CHEMICAL ATTACK IN SYRIA. THE VISIT TO THE TOWN OF DOUMA WAS CALLED OFF AFTER A U.N. SECURITY TEAM FACED GUNFIRE THERE ON TUESDAY. MEANWHILE, U.S. LAWMAKERS FROM BOTH PARTIES ARE VOICING CONCERNS ABOUT PRESIDENT TRUMP’S AUTHORITY FOR LAST WEEKEND’S MISSILE STRIKES AGAINST SYRIA. SYRIA’S NEIGHBOR IRAN PUT ITS MILITARY MIGHT ON DISPLAY TODAY AND ISSUED A DEFIANT WARNING AGAINST WOULD-BE ATTACKERS. SOLDIERS MARCHED THROUGH THE STREETS OF TEHRAN, MISSILES ROLLED BY AND JETS FLEW OVERHEAD TO MARK “NATIONAL ARMY DAY.” PRESIDENT HASSAN ROUHANI SAID IRAN NEEDS ITS GROWING ARSENAL, REGARDLESS OF SANCTIONS. >> ( translated ): WE TELL THE WORLD THAT WE WILL PRODUCE OR ACQUIRE ANY WEAPONS WE NEED, AND WILL NOT WAIT FOR THEIR APPROVAL. WE DO NOT SEEK THEIR VIEW ON THIS. WE NEVER HAVE AND WE NEVER WILL WE ARE NOT LIVING IN A NORMAL REGION, AND WE SEE INVADING POWERS HAVE BUILT BASES AROUND US. THEY MAINTAIN AN ILLEGAL PRESENCE. >> Woodruff: U.S. SANCTIONS ON IRAN WILL RESUME UNLESS PRESIDENT TRUMP AGAIN GRANTS A WAIVER NEXT ONTH. IN THE MEANTIME, BRITAIN, FRANCE AND GERMANY HAVE PROPOSED NEW EUROPEAN SANCTIONS. CUBA’S NATIONAL ASSEMBLY MOVED TODAY TO NAME A NEW PRESIDENT, AS RAUL CASTRO GETS READY TO STEP DOWN TOMORROW. THE 86-YEAR-OLD LEADER ENTERED THE CHAMBER WITH MIGUEL DIAZ- CANEL, HIS DESIGNATED SUCCESSOR. BUT, HE’LL REMAIN HEAD OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY, THE ISLAND NATION’S MOST POWERFUL POST. RAUL CASTRO TOOK OVER AS PRESIDENT AFTER FIDEL CASTRO, HIS BROTHER, FELL ILL IN 2006. BACK IN THIS COUNTRY, A POWER FAILURE BLACKED OUT ALL OF PUERTO RICO, FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE HURRICANE “MARIA” STRUCK LAST SEPTEMBER. OFFICIALS SAID AN EXCAVATOR ACCIDENTALLY TOOK OUT A TRANSMISSION LINE. IT’S THE SECOND MAJOR OUTAGE TO HIT THE U.S. TERRITORY IN LESS THAN A WEEK. OFFICIALS SAY IT COULD TAKE 24 TO 36 HOURS TO RESTORE POWER. FIRE CREWS IN OKLAHOMA FOUGHT TO CORRAL WILDFIRES THAT HAVE BURNED SINCE LAST WEEK. THE FLAMES HAVE SWEPT THROUGH DROUGHT-STRICKEN LAND, DESTROYING HOMES AND BARNS AND KILLING AT LEAST TWO PEOPLE. THE LARGEST FIRE HAS BURNED MORE THAN 400 SQUARE MILES AND IS ONLY 3% CONTAINED. NEWS TODAY OF TWO WOMEN WHO SAY THEY HAD AFFAIRS WITH PRESIDENT TRUMP IN 2006. THE “NATIONAL ENQUIRER’S” PARENT COMPANY RELEASED FORMER PLAYBOY PLAYMATE KAREN McDOUGAL FROM A DEAL THAT BARRED HER FROM TELLING HER STORY. AND, ON TWITTER THE PRESIDENT MOCKED PORN STAR STEPHANIE CLIFFORD. HE SAID A PICTURE SHE RELEASED, PURPORTEDLY OF A MAN WHO THREATENED HER, IS “A TOTAL CON JOB”. AMERICANS GOT AN EXTRA DAY, TODAY, TO FILE FEDERAL INCOME TAX RETURNS. THE I.R.S. WEB SITE FOR FILING ONLINE WAS DOWN MOST OF TUESDAY, DUE TO A HARDWARE FAILURE, SO THE AGENCY MOVED THE DEADLINE BACK, 24 HOURS. RETURNS AND PAYMENTS ARE NOW DUE BY MIDNIGHT TONIGHT. AND, ON WALL STREET, THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE LOST 38 POINTS TO CLOSE AT 24,748. THE NASDAQ ROSE 14 POINTS, AND THE S&P 500 ADDED TWO. STILL TO COME ON THE NEWSHOUR: THE ENDURING LEGACY OF FIRST LADY BARBARA BUSH. WHAT’S AT STAKE AFTER THE C.I.A. DIRECTOR’S MEETING WITH KIM JONG UN. AND THE STRIKINGLY HIGH INFANT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY RATES AMONG BLACK AMERICANS. >> Woodruff: SHE WAS A WIFE AND MOTHER TO PRESIDENTS, BUT A LACK OF PRETENTION AND A SENSE OF HUMOR THAT COULD BE SELF- DEPRECATING WERE WHAT ENDEARED BARBARA BUSH TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. SHE STOOD OUT IN A CROWD, WITH A SHOCK OF WHITE HAIR THAT EARNED HER THE FAMILY NICKNAME “SILVER FOX.” IT WAS PART OF BARBARA BUSH’S DETERMINATION TO BE HERSELF, AS SHE RECALLED IN 2004 FOR A PBS DOCUMENTARY. >> WHO’S JEALOUS OF AN OVERWEIGHT WHITE HAIRED WOMAN? NOBODY. SO I THINK THAT WAS IN MY BENEFIT IN A WAY. >> Woodruff: THE FUTURE FIRST LADY WAS BORN BARBARA PIERCE IN NEW YORK CITY IN 1925, TO MARVIN AND PAULINE PIERCE. HER FATHER WAS PRESIDENT OF McCALL CORPORATION, OF “REDBOOK” AND “McCALL” MAGAZINE FAME. THE FAMILY LIVED IN RYE, NEW YORK, WHERE BARBARA GREW UP WITH THREE SIBLINGS. FROM THERE, SHE WENT OFF TO SMITH COLLEGE, BUT IN 1945, SHE DROPPED OUT TO MARRY GEORGE BUSH, WHO WAS ON LEAVE FROM THE NAVY. THEY’D MET FOUR YEARS EARLIER. THE COUPLE MOVED TO TEXAS IN 1948 WITH THEIR FIRST CHILD, A SON, GEORGE W. HE WAS SOON JOINED BY A SISTER, ROBIN. BUT SHE DEVELOPED LEUKEMIA AND DIED AT THE AGE OF THREE, A TRAGEDY THAT RESHAPED THE FAMILY. THREE OTHER CHILDREN FOLLOWED, AND BARBARA WENT ON TO OVERSEE A TOTAL OF 27 MOVES AS HER HUSBAND’S CAREER TOOK THEM AROUND THE WORLD. FROM TEXAS, WHERE HE BUILT HIS FORTUNE IN THE OIL FIELDS, TO POLITICS AND PUBLIC LIFE. IN THE 1960’S AND ’70’S, BARBARA WAS BY HIS SIDE FOR TWO LOSING U.S. SENATE BIDS, A WINNING CAMPAIGN FOR A U.S. HOUSE SEAT, AND STINTS AS U.N. AMBASSADOR, CHAIR OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY AND C.I.A. DIRECTOR. IN 1980, HE RAN FOR PRESIDENT AND ULTIMATELY ENDED UP AS RONALD REAGAN’S RUNNING MATE. AS A POLITICAL SPOUSE, BARBARA BUSH’S WRY SENSE OF HUMOR ENDEARED HER TO MANY, BUT, SHE LATER ACKNOWLEDGED, IT DIDN’T SUIT EVERYONE. >> I TRIED TO BEHAVE MYSELF, BUT I’M A LITTLE IMPULSIVE, SO OCCASIONALLY I SAID THINGS I WAS SORT OF SORRY I SAID, BUT I THINK I BELIEVE THEM. CAUSED HER TROUBLE IN 1984 WHEN SHE REFERRED TO GERALDINE FERAUR OH, THE DEMOCRATIC VICE PRESIDENTIAL NOMINEE, AS SOMETHING THAT “RHYMES WITH RICH.” MRS. BUSH QUICKLY SHE REMAINED PLAIN-SPOKEN AFTER HER HUSBAND WON THE WHITE HOUSE FOR HIMSELF IN 1988. RIGHT FROM THE START, THE NEW FIRST LADY SET A NEW TONE, DOWNPLAYING FASHION, FOR INSTANCE, IN SHARP CONTRAST WITH HER PREDECESSOR, NANCY REAGAN. >> PLEASE NOTICE THE HAIR, THE MAKEUP, DESIGNER CLOTHES. ( LAUGHTER ) ( APPLAUSE ) AND REMEMBER, YOU MAY NEVER SEE IT AGAIN. >> Woodruff: IN 1989, SHE EVEN WORE CAMOUFLAGE GEAR ON A TRIP TO SAUDI ARABIA DURING THE FIRST GULF WAR TO VISIT WITH U.S. TROOPS AT THANKSGIVING. MRS. BUSH ALSO MADE DOGS A FIXTURE IN THE FIRST FAMILY’S LIFE. MILLIE, THEIR SPRINGER SPANIEL, HAD THE RUN OF THE WHITE HOUSE. >> THIS IS PICKLES. >> Woodruff: MILLIE PRODUCED A FAMOUS LITTER OF PUPPIES, DISPLAYED BEFORE THE WASHINGTON PRESS CORPS WHEN THEY WERE JUST A FEW DAYS OLD. >> DO YOU REALLY WANT TO KEEP ONE? >> WELL, I HAVEN’T WON THAT BATTLE. >> Woodruff: IN TIME, MRS. BUSH WAS INSPIRED TO WRITE A BEST- SELLING CHILDREN’S WORK, TITLED “MILLIE’S BOOK.” SHE REMINISCED ABOUT IT IN 2012 AT THE GEORGE W. BUSH PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY. >> SHE MADE OVER A MILLION DOLLARS FOR CHARITY. AS GEORGE SAYS, I WORKED ALL MY LIFE, GOT THE HIGHEST JOB MAYBE IN THE WORLD, AND MY DOG MADE MORE MONEY THAN I DID. >> Woodruff: WRITING HER OWN BOOK WAS JUST PART OF A LARGER CAMPAIGN FOR LITERACY IN AMERICA. BARBARA BUSH TOOK AN ACTIVE ROLE IN SEVERAL LITERACY ORGANIZATIONS, INCLUDING THE ONE SHE FOUNDED. >> REMEMBER WE HAVE A NEW BABY IN THE HOUSE. I HAVE NOW SPENT MORE THAN 25 YEARS PROMOTING FAMILY LITERACY AS I TRULY BELIEVE THAT BEING ABLE TO READ, WRITE AND COMPREHEND IS ONE OF THE KEYS TO A VERY SUCCESSFUL, HAPPY LIFE AND THAT A LITERATE SOCIETY IS IMPORTANT TO KEEPING OUR COUNTRY SAFE AND STRONG. >> Woodruff: BUT WHEN IT CAME TO HER HUSBAND’S PRESIDENCY, THE FIRST LADY TURNED POLITICAL FIGHTER. SHE STAUNCHLY DEFENDED HIS FAILED RE-ELECTION BID IN 1992, IN A NEWSHOUR INTERVIEW AT THE REPUBLICAN NATIONAL CONVENTION. >> WHAT’S THE MATTER WITH AMERICANS? YOU’RE IN THE BEST SHAPE OF ANYONE IN THE WORLD. DON’T AMERICANS KNOW THAT WHEN YOU ACHIEVE PEACE IT COSTS MONEY? PEACE IS COSTLY. WE OUGHT TO BE WILLING TO PAY FOR THE FACT THAT WE GO TO BED EVERY SINGLE NIGHT OF OUR LIFE FREER AND SAFER BECAUSE OF GEORGE BUSH. THINGS ARE TURNING JUDY, AND THEY ARE COMING TO A STRONG ECONOMY. BUT WE’RE GOING TO HAVE TO ALL WORK FOR IT. BUT IT’S BECAUSE WE ALL HAVE PEACE AND WE OUGHT TO BE DARN GRATEFUL TO GEORGE BUSH. >> Woodruff: EIGHT YEARS LATER, SHE WAS BACK CAMPAIGNING AGAIN, THIS TIME FOR HER SON, GEORGE W. BUSH, IN HIS 2000 PRESIDENTIAL RUN. HERE SHE WAS IN NEW HAMPSHIRE. >> THANK YOU FOR ALL YOU’RE DOING FOR MY BOY. >> Woodruff: AND IN 2016, SHE CAMPAIGNED YET AGAIN IN NEW HAMPSHIRE WITH ANOTHER SON, JEB, AS HE MADE HIS ULTIMATELY-FAILED BID, FOR THE REPUBLICAN NOMINATION. >> IT’S GREAT TO BE BACK IN NEW HAMPSHIRE. PEOPLE HAVE GOOD VALUES. >> Woodruff: MRS. BUSH MADE ONE OF HER LAST PUBLIC APPEARANCES IN MARCH, WITH HER HUSBAND AND PRESIDENTIAL SCHOLARS, IN COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS. CAMPAIGNER, LITERACY ADVOCATE, FIRST LADY, MOTHER, AND WIFE; AND, AS HER FAMILY DESCRIBED BARBARA BUSH, THEIR LINCHPIN. BARBARA BUSH WAS 92 YEARS OLD. IN DALLAS TODAY, HER ELDEST CHILD, PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH, OPENED UP ABOUT HIS FAMILY’S LOSS. HE SAT DOWN WITH THE PBS PUBLIC AFFAIRS SHOW “IN PRINCIPLE,” HOSTED BY AMY HOLMES AND MICHAEL GERSON, WHO, WE SHOULD DISCLOSE, SERVED AS ONE OF THE YOUNGER PRESIDENT BUSH’S WHITE HOUSE AIDES. MR. BUSH BEGAN BY DISCUSSING HIS FATHER, AND HOW HE WAS MOURNING. >> I’M VERY APPRECIATIVE OF THE OUTPOURING OF SYMPATHIES, PARTICULARLY FOR MY DAD, YOU KNOW. AT AGE 93, HE’S GOING TO MISS MOTHER. AFTER ALL, THEY WERE MARRIED FOR 73 YEARS. I’M COMFORTABLE WITH HER PASSING BECAUSE SHE WAS COMFORTABLE WITH HER PASSING. AND SHE TOLD ME POINT BLANK, “I DO NOT FEAR DEATH. I KNOW THERE’S A LOVING GOD.” AND I TOLD OUR DAUGHTERS AND MY BROTHERS AND SISTERS, “WOW, WHAT A BEAUTIFUL, BEAUTIFUL LESSON.” I DON’T WANT TO SOUND CAVALIER, BUT I TRULY AM AT PEACE, AND I FEEL VERY BLESSED. PLUS MY MOTHER, I CAN JUST HEAR HER SAYING, “GET ON WITH YOUR LIFE AND DO SOMETHING GOOD.” >> WHAT ADVICE DID YOUR MOM GIVE YOU ABOUT BEING PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES? >> KEEP YOUR EYE ON THE BALL, KEEP YOUR NOSE ON THE GR GRINDSTONE, AND I TOLD HER, “THAT’S A HELL OF A POSITION TO BE IN.” >> A LITTLE AWKWARD? >> YEAH. A LOT OF PSYCHO-BABBLE ABOUT MY RELATIONSHIP WITH MY PARENTS DURING THE PRESIDENCY, AND IT’S NATURAL, BECAUSE PEOPLE HAVEN’T HAD A CHANCE TO ASK MANY PRESIDENTS WHAT IT’S LIKE TO BE PRESIDENT WITH YOUR FATHER BEING A FORMER PRESIDENT AND MOTHER FORMER FIRST LADY. AND THE MOST IMPORTANT THING THEY TOLD ME WAS, “SON, I LOVE YOU, AND WE’RE PROUD OF YOU.” WHICH IS THE MOST IMPORTANT THING ANY PARENT CAN TELL A CHILD. >> SO, MR. PRESIDENT, DID YOU HAVE A CHANCE TO SAY GOOD-BYE TO YOUR MOM? >> I DID, YEAH. LAURA AND YOU WENT OVER AND SAW HER AT THE HOSPITAL. SHE WAS DOING PRETTY WELL, FEISTY STILL, WHICH IS A GOOD SIGN. SHE AND I USED TO NEEDLE EACH OTHER IN A FRIENDLY WAY. AND THEN A DOCTOR WALKED INTO THIS HOSPITAL ROOM AND MOTHER SAID, “DO YOU WANT TO KNOW WHY GEORGE W. IS THE WAY HE IS, DOCTOR?” AND THE DOCTOR DIDN’T HAVE ANY CHOICE. AND MOTHER SAID, “BECAUSE I DRANK AND SMOKED WHEN I WAS PREGNANT WITH HIM.” SO I KNEW SHE WAS FEELING PRETTY GOOD. AND THEN A WEEK LATER SHE WENT DOWNHILL. SHE CHOSE NO– DIDN’T WANT TO HAVE ANY LIFE-SUSTAINING CARE. IN OTHER WORDS, SHE WAS READY TO MOVE. AND THEY MADE HER COMFORTABLE. AND I CALLED HER YESTERDAY, WHEN I HAD THE SENSE THAT SHE WAS READY TO GO. SHE COULDN’T TALK BACK, BUT I TOLD HER HOW MUCH I LOVED HER. AND MY BROTHERS AND SISTERS DID THE SAME THING. AND THEN SHE WAS BY DAD’S SIDE. INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH, HE SAT THERE FOR, YOU KNOW, FOUR, FIVE HOURS, I’M TOLD, AND A PREACHER CAME IN AND READ THE BIBLE, AND MY BROTHER NEAL READ “MOM’S MEMOIRS.” >> OH, WOW. >> IT’S A SWEET SEEN WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT IT. >> THAT IS SWEET. >> SHE HAD A VERY FORTUNATE LIFE AND A VERY FORTUNATE END IN MANY WAYS. >> Woodruff: YOU CAN WATCH THE FULL INTERVIEW FRIDAY NIGHT AT 8:30, ON PBS’s “IN PRINCIPLE.” AND IN A STATEMENT, THE ELDER PRESIDENT BUSH SAID, “I ALWAYS KNEW BARBARA WAS THE MOST BELOVED WOMAN IN THE WORLD, AND IN FACT I USED TO TEASE HER THAT I HAD A COMPLEX ABOUT THAT FACT. WE HAVE FAITH THAT SHE IS IN HEAVEN, AND WE KNOW LIFE WILL GO ON, AS SHE WOULD HAVE IT. SO CROSS THE BUSHES OFF YOUR WORRY LIST.” NOW, FOR A DEEPER LOOK AT THE FORMER FIRST LADY’S LIFE, I’M JOINED BY C. BOYDEN GRAY, WHO WAS WHITE HOUSE COUNSEL TO PRESIDENT GEORGE H.W. BUSH AND REMAINS A CLOSE PERSONAL FRIEND TO THE BUSH FAMILY. REVEREND BONNIE STEINROEDER, WHO SERVED AS THE PASTOR AT THE CHURCH IN KENNEBUNKPORT THAT THE BUSH FAMILY ATTENDED DURING THEIR SUMMERS IN MAINE. AND SUSAN PAGE, WHITE HOUSE BUREAU CHIEF FOR “USA TODAY,” AND AUTHOR OF THE UPCOMING BOOK “THE MATRIARCH: BARBARA BUSH AND THE MAKING OF AN AMERICAN DYNASTY,” WHICH WILL BE OUT NEXT YEAR. AND THANK YOU ALL THREE FOR JOINING US. WE DO APPRECIATE IT. BOYDEN GRAY, I’M GOING TO START WITH YOU. IT’S SO REMARKABLE TO ME, WE JUST HEARD BOTH PRESIDENT BUSHES COMMENT WITH THIS, SAYING WE ARE COMFORTABLE WITH THIS. SHE WAS COMFORTABLE WITH HER PASSING. WE HEARD H.W. BUSH SAY, “CROSS THE BUSHES OFF THE WORRY LIST.” THAT TELLS YOU A LOT ABOUT HER IS AND HER FAMILY. >> IT SAYS A GREAT DEAL. SHE WENT OUT THE WAY SHE LIVED HER LIFE. SHE DID IT HER WAY, SHE DID IT HONESTLY, SHE DID IT STRAIGHTFORWARDEDLY. IT WAS A DIGNIFIED WAY TO GO. THOSE OF US WHO WORKED WITH THEM FEEL SO LUCKY TO HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO SUCH– TO SUCH LOVE AND STRENGTH. >> Woodruff: SUSAN, YOU’VE BEEN WORKING ON THIS BOOK, WHICH WE MENTIONED, ABOUT BARBARA BUSH THAT’S COMING OUT NEXT YEAR. AND I WAS STRUCK, ONE OF THE THINGS– YOU SAID YOU’VE BEEN STRUCK BY HOW SHE WAS OFTEN MISPERCEIVED, UNDERESTIMATED BY PEOPLE. WHAT DID YOU MEAN BY THAT? >> WELL, ONE OF THE REASONS I THOUGHT SHE DESERVED A BIOGRAPHY IS THAT PEOPLE HAD, I THINK, A PERCEPTION OF HER AS A WARM GRANDMOTHER AND A VERY SOFT– THE NATIONAL GRANDMOTHER WITH THE WHITE HAIR AND THE BIG PEARLS. AND THAT’S TRUE THAT SHE’S A WARM GRANDMOTHER. BUT SHE WAS ALSO PRETTY SHARP. SHE HAD GREAT POLITICAL INSTINCTS. SHE DID NOT HESITATE TO EXPRESS HERSELF AND HER OPINIONS TO HER HUSBAND AND HER SONS. AND I THINK SHE WAS INFLUENTIAL IN THE WHITE HOUSE IN A WAY THAT PEOPLE PERHAPS DIDN’T UNDERSTAND. IT’S NOT THAT SHE TOOK OVER HEALTH CARE, LIKE HILLARY CLINTON. BUT SHE WAS A VOICE IN THE EAR OF HER HUSBAND AND HER SON ON WHAT MATTERED, ON WHAT TO FOCUS ON, AND ON WHO TO TRUST. SHE COULD SPOT A PHONY A MILE AWAY. >> Woodruff: PASTOR STEINROEDER, YOU MET THE BUSHES WHEN YOU WERE– YOU HAD JUST BEGUN, I THINK, WORKING AT THE CHURCH IN KENNEBUNKPORT. AND YOU SAID IT WAS RIGHT AFTER 9/11, AND YOU SAID MRS. BUSH CAME OVER TO YOU, MADE A POINT OF COMING OVER TO YOU. TALK ABOUT THAT BHER. >> WELL, SO, IT WAS A SUNDAY AFTER 9/11. I HAD BEEN SCHEDULED TO GIVE MY CALL SERMON AT THE CHURCH WHERE I WOULD PREACH, EVERYBODY WOULD VOTE ON ME. 9/11 HAPPENED ON THAT TUESDAY, SO I RIPPED UP MY SERMON, I SHOWED UP MY FIRST TIME IN THIS CHURCH. I LOOKED OUT AND THE PRESIDENT’S PARENT. YOU KNOW, PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH, BARBARA BUSH. I DON’T REMEMBER WHAT I SAID, I JUST PREACHED THE BEST I COULD. AND AFTERWARDS SHE CAME UP TO ME AND SHE HUGGED ME, AND SHE SAID, “YOUR WORDS SO COMFORTED ME. I’M SO GLAD YOU’RE OUR NEW PASTOR.” AND WHAT I REALIZED IN THAT MOMENT TWASN’T ME WHO HAD COMFORTED HER. SHE WAS COMFORTING ME. I FEEL LIKE THAT SET THE TONE FOR OUR WHOLE RELATIONSHIP. >> Woodruff: AND YOU TOLD US THAT YOU WENT ON TO HAVE A GREAT FRIENDSHIP WITH THEM. BOYDEN GRAY, I WANT TO COME BACK TO YOU. THERE ARE SO MANY PARTS OF HER LIFE THAT ARE REALLY INTERESTING. I WANT TO GO BACK TO WHAT SUSAN WAS SAYING ABOUT BARBARA BUSH’S INFLUENCE IN THE WHITE HOUSE ON HER HUSBAND. HOW DID YOU SEE THAT? >> WELL, SHE– SHE WAS ON TOP OF EVERYTHING. SHE DIDN’T GET INVOLVED, AS SUSAN SAID, IN INDIVIDUAL POLICIES, EXCEPT VERY, VERY RARELY. BUT SHE KNEW EVERYTHING. SHE WAS POLITICALLY VERY, VERY ASTUTE. AND IF SHE THOUGHT STAFF WAS NOT SERVING HER HUSBAND WELL, OR THAT SOMEBODY WAS CUTTING CORNERS, SHE WOULD LET IT BE KNOWN, QUIETLY, BUT STRONGLY. AND NO ONE EVER MESSED AROUND WHEN SHE WAS WATCHING. SO SHE WAS AN ENORMOUS WATCHDOG FOR HIM, AND SHE WAS AN ENORMOUS TOWER OF STRENGTH. SHE NEVER FLINCHED. SHE NEVER BLINKED. AND SHE ALWAYS SUPPORTED HIM TO THE FULLEST. IT WAS A REMARKABLE PARTNERSHIP THAT THEY HAD. >> Woodruff: SUSAN, WHAT’S AN EXAMPLE OF THAT. YOU TALKED TO US ABOUT THE DIFFICULT, THE PAINFUL TIMES THAT SHE WENT THROUGH, AND OFTEN WE DIDN’T HAVE ANY IDEA THAT THAT WAS GOING ON. >> YOU KNOW, IT’S TRUE. SHE IS FROM A VERY EXALTED LINEAGE. SHE HAD A DIRECT ANCESTOR COME OVER ON THE “MAYFLOWER.” SHE’S A DISTANT COUSIN TO THE 14th PRESIDENT, FRANKLIN PEERLS. AND, OF COURSE, SHE HAD LIVED A LIFE OF PRIVILEGE AND POSITION. BUT SHE HAD THE GRIEF AND PAIN THAT PEOPLE HAVE IN THEIR LIVES. SHE LOST A DAUGHTER TO LEUKEMIA. SHE HAD A BATTLE WITH DEPRESSION IN 1975. SHE TOLD ME SHE CONTEMPLATED SUICIDE AT THAT TIME. SHE WAS DIAGNOSED WITH GRAVES DISEASE SOON AFTER BECOMING FIRST LADY. THAT WAS SOMETHING THAT CAUSED HER GREAT DIFFICULTY UP TO THE– FOREVER, UNTIL THE END OF HER LIE. BUT IN WAYS THAT SHE NEVER– YOU KNOW, SHE NEVER COMPLAINED– AT LEAST SHE NEVER COMPLAIPPED IN PUBLIC. SHE WAS VERY– SHE WAS STOIC. AND SHE TOLD ME THAT THE STRUGGLE WITH DEPRESSION, FOR INSTANCE, GAVE HER– >> Woodruff: WHICH A LOT OF PEOPLE WEREN’T AWARE OF. >> WEREN’T AWARE OF. SHE DISCLOSED IT IN HER MEMOIRS. PEOPLE DIDN’T KNOW ABOUT IT AT THE TIME. HER STRUGGLES WITH DEPRESSION GAVE HER EMPATHY WITH PEOPLE WHO WERE HAVING TROUBLE. SHE CAME TO LEARN THAT YOU REALLY NEED SOMETIMES TO SEEK HELP. AND SHE SAID SHE WISHED AT THAT POINT SHE HAD DONE THAT. >> Woodruff: AND PASTOR STEINROEDER, YOU SAW THAT IN HER, DIDN’T YOU? >> I TOTALLY SAW THAT IN HER. WHEN SUSAN WAS SAYING IN THE BEGINNING THAT PEOPLE CEEND OF MISUNDERSTOOD HER, SHE WAS– YES, SHE WAS STRONG AND SMART AND KIND AND FUNNY, AND ALL OF THOSE THINGS. AND I RECEIVED HER LOVE. I ALSO WAS SCOLDED BY HER MORE THAN ONE TIME. AND SHE JUST HAD THE BIGGEST HEART AND WAS A VERY COMPASSIONATE AND GENEROUS PERSON. AND I JUST WANT TO ADD, YOU KNOW, A LOT OF PEOPLE WILL HELP YOU IF YOU GO AND ASK. BARBARA BUSH NEVER WAITED TO BE ASKED. SHE LOOKED AROUND TO SEE WHERE THE NEED WAS, AND THEN SHE STEPPED IN TO THAT NEED TO HELP OTHER PEOPLE, WHICH IS ONE THING THAT FOR ME MADE HER SO UNIQUE AND SPECIAL. >> Woodruff: PASTOR STEINROEDER, I WANT TO STAY WITH YOU FOR JUST A MOMENT, BECAUSE ONE OF THE THINGS YOU TALKED WITH US ABOUT IS HOW YOU AT SOME POINT– THEY INVITED YOU TO MANY EVENTS AT THEIR HOME IN KENNEBUNKPORT, AND OFTEN YOU WERE THE ONLY DEMOCRAT THERE, OR THERE WOULD BE DEMOCRATS WITH REPUBLICANS. HOW DID YOU OBSERVE THE PARTISANSHIP AROUND THEM. >> THEY WERE THE MOST EYE KNOW IT SOUNDS FUN TOW SAY– THEY WERE THE MOST NONPARTISAN PEOPLE I HAVE EVER MET. I MEAN, THEY KNEW THAT I WAS A DEMOCRAT. THEY NEVER BROUGHT IT UP. THEY WERE FRIENDS WITH EVERYBODY. THEIR EVENTS WERE PEOPLE LIKE OLYMPIA SNOWE, FORMER SENATOR OF E FUNDRAISERS AND MY HUSBAND AND I. BUT EVERYONE GOT ALONG. AND, AGAIN, THEY WERE SO GENEROUS IN SPIRIT. AND AS THEIR PASTOR, I CAN SAY, THEY TOOK VERY SERIOUSLY THEIR CHRISTIAN CALLING TO HELP THEIR NEIGHBOR, TO LOVE THEIR NEIGHBOR AS THEMSELVES. AND THEIR NEIGHBOR DIDN’T HAVE RED OR BLUE OR MAN OR WOMAN OR WHATEVER STATION YOU WERE IN LIFE. THEY PICKED THEIR FRIENDS. THEY HELPED PEOPLE BECAUSE THEY WERE LOVING AND THEY CARED. >> Woodruff: BOYDEN GRAY, I WANT TO YOU PICK UP ON THAT BECAUSE THOSE VALUES CARRIED OVER TO THE BUSH PRESIDENCY, TO NOT ONLY THEIR FOUR YEARS IN THE WHITE HOUSE WHEN HE WAS PRESIDENT, BUT THE TIME AS VICE PRESIDENT. THEIR TIME THROUGHOUT THEIR LIVES IN PUBLIC SERVICE. >> WELL, THEY WERE INCREDIBLY GENEROUS WITH THEIR TIME AND THEIR ATTENTION. AND THEY HELPED EVERYBODY IN THE FAMILY, IN THEIR FAMILY, EVERYBODY WHO WORKED WITH THEM, FOR THEM, IN EVERY WAY THEY COULD. IT WAS THE ROLE MOD THEY’LL THEY SET WAS EXTRAORDINARY. AND I JUST HOPE THAT WE CAN MAINTAIN THIS, USING HER LIFE AS AN EXAMPLE, AND 41’S EXAMPLE. EXTRAORDINARY COUPLE. AND– BUT AT THE SAME TIME, VERY WARM AND VERY– AND VERY LOVING. AND THEY– YOU KNOW, AS A PARTIAL MATTER, THEY HELPED ME RAISE MY DAUGHTER, AND I’M VERY GRATEFUL FOR THAT. ONE SORT OF ANECDOTE, WHEN MY DAUGHTER WAS GRADUATING FROM HIGH SCHOOL, SHE WROTE PRESIDENT BUSH AND SAID, “WOULD YOU COME AND SPEAK AT MY GRADUATION?” AND HE IMMEDIATELY REPLIED YES. AND BARBARA STEPPED IN AND SAID, “NO, GEORGE YOU CAN’T DO THAT. YOU REFUSED TO DO ANY OF YOUR GRANDCHILDREN’S GRADUATIONS AND YOU’LL DO THAT FOR THE REST OF YOUR LIFE AND NOTHING ELSE SO YOU CAN’T DO IT FOR ELIZA.” BUT THE THOUGHT REMAINED, AND THAT WAS WHAT WAS IMPORTANT. >> Woodruff: SUSAN, ON THIS WHOLE BUSINESS OF HOW OPEN THEY WERE TO BOTH POLITICAL PARTIES, AND, YET, THERE WAS TENSION WITH THIS PRESIDENT, WASN’T THERE? >> YES. WELL, YOU KNOW, BARBARA BUSH WAS A FIERCE DEFENDER OF HER FAMILY, AGAINST ANY CRITICS OF HER HUSBAND OR OF HER SON, EITHER SON, ALL OF HER SONS. BUT WHEN DONALD TRUMP WAS SO CAUSTIC TOWARD JEB BUSH DURING THE 2016 PRIMARIES, I THINK SHE FOUND THAT VERY DIFFICULT TO TAKE, AND SHE MADE IT CLEAR SHE DIDN’T LIKE THAT. AND SHE EXPRESSED CONCERNS TO ME IN INTERVIEWS IN RECENT MONTHS ABOUT THE DIRECTION OF THE PARTY THAT SHE’S BEEN PART OF FOR SO LONG. AND I THINK ONE REASON WE SEE SUCH A BIG OUTPOURING TODAY IS I THINK OTHER AMERICANS THINK ARE WE HEADED IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION? CAN WE REVIVE SOME OF THE CIVILITY THAT MARKED THE BUSHES? >> Woodruff: AND WE SHOULD NOTE THAT MRS. TRUMP, MELANIA TRUMP, THE FIRST LADY, IS GOING TO THE SERVICES, BUT IT’S OUR UNDERSTANDING THAT PRESIDENT TRUMP IS NOT ATTENDING. IS THAT CORRECT? >> WELL, I KNOW THAT SHE’S ACCEPT AND HE HAS NOT YET. >> Woodruff: HAS NOT YET, SO WE DON’T KNOW WHETHER HE IS OR NOT. PASTOR STEINROEDER, YOU SPOKE, YOU TOUCHED ON THIS A MINUTE AGO, HER STRONG FAITH. THAT WAS CLEARLY A HUGE PART OF HER LIFE. I MEAN, FROM WHAT YOU WERE TELLING US. >> IT WAS A HUGE PART OF HER LIFE, AND OF PRESIDENT BUSH’S LIFE AS WELL. AND YOU COULD SEE IT THROUGH EVERYTHING. YOU COULD SEE IT IN THEIR RELATIONSHIP. YOU COULD SEE IT IN THE MOTIVATION THAT THEY FELT TO HELP OTHER PEOPLE, TO BE GOOD PEOPLE, TO BE KIND, TO BE GENEROUS. WE TALKED ABOUT FAITH QUITE A BIT. BUT SHE WAS NEVER HEAVY HANDED ABOUT HER FAITH BECAUSE SHE WAS– I DON’T EVEN PEOPLE REALIZE, BUT MY EXPERIENCE OF HER IS SHE WAS ALSO VERY PRIVATE IN MANY WAYS. SO SHE WAS VERY CLEAR ABOUT HER FAITH. SHE WOULD HELP ANYBODY. BUT SHE NEVER TRIED TO FORCE HER VIEWDZ OR HER BELIEFS ON ANYBODY ELSE. AND I DO THINK THAT’S PROBABLY WHAT HELPED HER AT THE END OF HER LIFE TO HAVE THAT SENSE OF PEACE BECAUSE WE HAD TALKED A LONG, LONG TIME AGO ABOUT HER BELIEFS SHASHE KNEW SHE WOULD BE REUNITED WITH THE PEOPLE SHE LOVED WHO HAD GONE BEFORE HER. >> Woodruff: BOYDON GRAY, YOU WERE IN TOUCH WITH THE FAMILY, IN THE PAST, YOU HAVE BEEN VERY CLOSE TO THEM. BUT YOU’VE BEEN GETTING REGULAR REPORTS IN THE LAST FEW WEEKS. HOW DID SHE APPROACH THE END? >> WELL, THE SAME WAY SHE DID LIFE. AS I SAID EARLIER, SHE WANTED TO GO OUT WITH THE DIGNITY THAT SHE ALWAYS LIVED WITH AND ALWAYS EXHIBITED. AND SHE DIDN’T WANT TO BE FELT SORRY FOR. SHE WANTED TO GO OUT WITH THE KIND OF GRACE THAT EXEMPLIFIED HER LIFE. AND SHE DID IT. AND IT’S A GREAT EXAMPLE, AND IT’S SOMETHING THAT I HOPE ALL AMERICANS LOOK AT, BECAUSE THIS IS THE WAY– THIS IS THE WAY TO FINISH OFF A FABULOUS, FABULOUS LIFE. >> Woodruff: AND HER SONS WERE SAYING KEEPING HER HUMOR UNTIL THE VERY END. >> VERY END. HAVING A BOURBON RIGHT BEFORE SHE DIED. ( LAUGHTER ) >> Woodruff: LITERALLY, THE DAY OR SO BEFORE. >> YES. >> Woodruff: WELL, IT IS SO WONDERFUL TO BE ABLE TO REMEMBER SUCH A REMARKABLE WOMAN. BOYDEN GRAY, SUSAN PAGE, PASTOR STEINROEDER, THANK YOU ALL VERY MUCH. >> THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME. >> Woodruff: A SHORT TIME AGO THE PRESIDENT AND JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER SHINZO ABE MET REPORTERS AT MAR-A-LAGO, MR. TRUMP’S FLORIDA ESTATE. THE PRESIDENT SPOKE AGAIN OF THE ANTICIPATED SUMMIT LATER THIS SPRING WITH NORTH KOREA’S KIM JONG-UN, AND OF THE PRIME MINISTER’S ROLE IN BRINGING NORTH KOREA CLOSER TO THE BARGAINING TABLE. >> DURING OUR VISIT TO ASIA IN NOVEMBER, WE HAD TREMENDOUS SUCCESS ENLISTING SUPPORT FOR OUR CAMPAIGN OF MAXIMUM PRESSURE ON THE NORTH KOREAN REGIME. AS YOU KNOW, I WILL BE MEETING WITH KIM JONG-UN IN THE COMING WEEKS TO DISCUSS THE DENUCLEARIZATION OF THE KOREAN PENINSULA. HOPEFULLY, THAT MEETING WILL BE A GREAT SUCCESS, AND WE’RE LOOKING FORWARD TO IT. IT WOULD BE A TREMENDOUS THING FOR NORTH KOREA AND A TREMENDOUS THING FOR THE WORLD. SO WE WILL BE DOING EVERYTHING POSSIBLE TO MAKE IT A WORLDWIDE SUCCESS– NOT JUST FOR THE UNITED STATES OR SOUTH KOREA OR NORTH KOREA OR JAPAN, BUT FOR THE ENTIRE WORLD. WE HOPE TO SEE THE DAY WHEN THE WHOLE KOREAN PENINSULA CAN LIVE TOGETHER IN SAFETY, PROSPATRIOT, AND PEACE. THIS IS THE DESTINY OF THE KOREAN PEOPLE WHO DESERVE AND HAVE GONE THROUGH SO MUCH OVER THE YEARS. WE HOPE IT ALL WORKS OUT. WE’LL BE TRYING VERY HARD. I WANT TO THANK THE PRIME MINISTER FOR HIS INSIGHT AND SUPPORT OVER THE PAST YEAR AS WE HAVE PURSUED THE DREAM OF A PEACEFUL NUCLEAR-FREE KOREA. >> Woodruff: THAT’S PRESIDENT TRUMP SPEAKING JUST A SHORT TIME AGO. SO NOW WE’RE JOINED BY OUR WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT YAMICHE ALCINDOR. YAMICHE, THE PRESIDENT REFERRING TO THIS MEETING A FEW WEEKS AGO BETWEEN C.I.A. DIRECTOR MIKE POMPEO, THE NORTH KOREAN LEADER. WHAT ARE WE LEARNING ABOUT THAT? AND WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE MEETINGS THE PRESIDENT IS HAVING RIGHT NOW WITH THE JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER? >> WELL, THE PRESIDENT HAS CHARACTERIZED THE MEETING THAT MIKE POMPEO HAD WITH KIM JONG-UN AS SOMETHING THAT WAS VERY PRODUCTIVE. HE SAID THE MEETING WENT SMOOTHLY. HE TWEETED OUT THIS MORNING. AND HE SAID THAT HE IS NOW LOOKING FORWARD TO SOME SORT OF DIPLOMACY WITH NORTH KOREA. THE PRIME MINISTER OF JAPAN REALLY MADE IT VERY CLEAR THAT ONE OF HIS TOP PRIORITIES WITH MEETING WITH THIS PRESIDENT, WITH MEETING WITH PRESIDENT TRUMP, IS THAT HE WANTED TO WORK ON THE DENUCLEARIZATION OF NORTH KOREA. HE SAID IT WAS HIS TOP PRIORITY. THAT’S WHAT HE WANTED TO TALK ABOUT. AND IT SEEMS PRESIDENT TRUMP IS TAKE A DIFFERENT TONE. BEFORE WE REMEMBER THE BACK-AND-FORTH BETWEEN HIM AND THE LEADER OF NORTH KOREA WHERE THEY WERE NAME CALLING. IN THIS CASE, IT SEEMS AS THOUGH THINGS ARE GETTING A LITTLE BIT UNDER WAY AND GOING SMOOTHLY. >> Woodruff: THERE HAS BEEN SOME REPORTING WITH WHETHER THE JAPANESE ARE ENTIRELY ON BOARD WITH WHAT’S GOING ON. WHAT ARE WE LEARNING ABOUT THE CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN PRESIDENT TRUMP AND THE JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER IN TERMS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TWO LEADERS, THE COUNTRIES? >> WELL, THE RELATIONSHIP IS ONE THAT IS BOTH– THEY BOTH HAVE THIS– THIS– THEY REALLY WANT THE GOAL TO HAVE NORTH KOREA BE DENUCLEARIZED. BUT THEY ALSO HAVE THIS IDEA OF TRADE. WHILE PRESIDENT TRUMP HAS SAID HE WANTS TO WORK WITH JAPAN, AND THE PRIME MINISTER HAS REALLY TRIED TO FLATTER THE PRESIDENT BY SAYING HE’S TAKING A VERY LEADING VOICE ON NORTH KOREA THERE’S ALSO THIS IDEA THAT PRESIDENT TRUMP THINKS THAT THE TRADE THAT WE HAVE WITH JAPAN RIGHT NOW IS NOT FAIR, AND HE WANTS TO OF JAPAN TO PAY MORE. HE WANTS JAPAN TO BE BUYING MORE MILITARY PLANES. HE SAID THAT IN HIS SPEECH, IN THE PRESS CONFERENCE TODAY. SO THERE’S THIS IDEA THAT HE REALLY WANTS JAPAN TO BEEF UP WHAT THEY’RE DOING IN TERMS OF BUYING STUFF FROM THE U.S. AND THAT’S WHERE THINGS COULD GET A LITTLE SHAKY. IT SEEMS AS THOUGH RIGHT NOW– THEY PLAYED ALL DAY PLAYING GOLF, IT SEEMS LIKE THEY’RE TRYING TO GET TO KNOW EACH OTHER AND THINGS SEEM TO BE GOING SMOOTHLY. >> Woodruff: IT’S FASCINATING TO WATCH, ALL TAKING PLACE AT MAR-A-LAGO. YAMICHE ALCINDOR, THANK YOU VERY MUCH. >> Woodruff: NOW A VIEW FROM THE WHITE HOUSE ON MIKE POMPEO’S TRIP TO NORTH KOREA AND THE DIPLOMATIC STATE OF PLAY BETWEEN NORTH KOREA AND THE U.S. WE TURN TO VICTORIA COATES, SPECIAL ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT AND SENIOR DIRECTOR ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL. VICTORIA COATES, WELCOME. >> JUDY, THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME. >> Woodruff: WE HEARD THE PRESIDENT SAY JUST THEN THAT HE’S GOING TO BE MEETING WITH NORTH KOREA’S LEADER IN COMING WEEKS. DOES THAT MEAN THIS MEETING IS DEFINITELY, FOR SURE, IS GOING TO HAPPEN? >> HE WAS ACTUALLY A LITTLE BIT MORE SPECIFIC EARLIER ON TODAY. HE SAID EARLY JUNE IF NOT A LITTLE BIT BEFORE. SO I WOULD SAY THAT SOUNDS PRETTY CONFIRMED TO ME. >> Woodruff: THE REASON I’M ASKING SO SPECIFICALLY ABOUT WHETHER IT’S ON IS BECAUSE THE OTHER DAY THE PRESIDENT SAID, “WELL, WE MAY BE MEETING OR WE MAY NOT BE MEETING.” SO THERE’S NO DOUBT IN YOUR MIND THE MEETING IS HAPPENING. >> THERE’S NO DOUBT IN MY MIND THEY INTEND TO MEET BUT WE HAVE TO REMEMBER THE NORTH KOREANS HAVE A VOTE AS WELL. A LOT OF THIS DISCUSSION HAS BEEN CONTINGENT ON THEIR WILLINGNESS TO TALK ABOUT DENUCLEARIZATION. AND THAT IS OUR GOAL. SO IF FOR SOME REASON THEY WERE TO DO SOMETHING, I COULD SEE THAT BEING A SPOILER. BUT I THINK FROM OUR PERSPECTIVE, GIVEN THE VERY CONSTRUCTIVE MEETINGS DIRECTOR POMPEO HAD, AND THE TONE COMING OUT OF NORTH KOREA RIGHT NOW, WE WOULD BE VERY HOPEFUL. >> Woodruff: WELL, LET’S TALK ABOUT THOSE MEETINGS THAT MR. POMPEO HAD WITH NORTH KOREA’S LEADER, HIGHLY UNUSUAL. WE WEREN’T EXPECTING IT. IT WAS A SURPRISE, KEPT A SECRET FOR A WHILE. WHAT CAME OUT OF THOSE MEET SNTION WHAT DID THE UNITED STATES LEARN ABOUT THE NORTH KOREAN LEADER FROM THOSE MEETINGS? >> WELL, I MEAN, AS YOU KNOW, THAT’S THE FIRST TIME SINCE 2000, THAT WE’VE HAD A MEETING ON THAT LEVEL. AND I THINK IT WAS VERY IMPORTANT BEFORE WE GO IN TO ANY PROPOSED PRESIDENTIAL ENGAGEMENT THAT WE HAVE SOMEONE THE PRESIDENT VERY MUCH TRUSTS, SOMEBODY WHO CAN SPEAK FOR THE PRESIDENT, MEET WITH THAT PERSON, TAKE THEIR MEASURE. I’M NOT GOING TO SPEAK TO THE DETAILS OF THE MEET, BUT YOU CAN IMAGINE WHAT KIND OF SORT OF PREPARATION AND DETAIL THAT YOU’D GO THROUGH. AND, ALSO VERY MUCH, AS I SAID, TO ESTABLISH THAT OUR GOAL FOR THE PENINSULA IS SOMETHING THAT THEY’RE WILLING TO TALK ABOUT AND CONSIDER. >> Woodruff: WELL, ARE THEY PREPARED? I MEAN, WHAT WE’VE BEEN TOLD– >> THEY’VE SAID THAT YES, THEY ARE. >> Woodruff: SO THAT MEANS COMPLETELY DISMANTLING THIS PROGRAM THAT THEY’VE SPENT YEARS BUILDING UP, SPENDING MONEY ON, POURING ALL THEIR TIME AND ENERGY BUILDING UP, THAT THEY’RE PREPARED TO COMPLETELY GET RID OF IT? >> WELL, THEY’RE AT LEAST WILLING TO HAVE THAT CONVERSATION. AND WE’VE BEEN VERY CLEAR THAT THE VERIFIABLE, COMPLETE, AND IR-REVERSIBLE DISMANTLEMENT OF THAT NUCLEAR PROGRAM IS OUR GOAL. SO THEY KNOW GOING IN THAT THAT IS WHAT WE’RE LOOKING FOR. WHEN PRESIDENT TRUMP CAME INTO OFFICE, ONE THING HE MADE VERY CLEAR IS THAT HE WAS GOG PUT THIS CAMPAIGN OF MAXIMUM PRESSURE ON NORTH KOREA. SO WE’VE SPENT A GREAT DEAL OF TIME AND ENERGY OVER THE LAST 15 MONTHS APPLYING THAT PRESSURE. WE’VE GOTTEN EXCELLENT SUPPORT OUT OF, OBVIOUSLY, SOUTH KOREA AND JAPAN. WE’VE ALSO HAD SOME SUPPORT FROM CHINA, WHICH HAS BEEN UNPRECEDENTED. AND I THINK THAT REALLY IS STARTING TO HAVE AN EFFECT. >> Woodruff: ARE YOU ALREADY LOOKING AT HOW DO YOU VERIFY ONCE THEY DISMANTLE? >> THAT’S ALWAYS– TRUST BUT VERIFY. IT IS ALWAYS THE VERY DIFFICULT THING, IS TO GET AN INSPECTIONS PROGRAM IN PLACE THAT YOU ARE CONFIDENT THAT, INDEED, YOUR GOAL HAS BEEN MET. SO NOBODY IS MAKING LIGHT OF THIS TASK. I THINK IT WILL BE EXTREMELY DIFFICULT, BUT SO FAR, WE, I THINK, HAVE REASON TO BE HOPEFUL. >> Woodruff: AND WE KNOW THAT WE’VE BEEN MENTIONING THE PRESIDENT’S MEETING TODAY AND YESTERDAY WITH THE JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER. ONE THING THE JAPANESE ARE CONCERNED ABOUT, THEY SAY, IS CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS. EVEN IF THE NUCLEAR PROGRAM GOES AWAY, THEY’RE WORRIED, BECAUSE THEY’RE SO CLOSE, ABOUT NORTH KOREA’S CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS PROGRAM. IS THAT GOING TO BE PART OF THESE TALKS? >> WELL, I THINK WE CERTAINLY HAVE TO ADDRESS IT. I THINK THAT’S DEFINITELY A LESSON FROM OUR EXPERIENCE WITH IRAN A COUPLE OF YEARS AGO, THAT WE DO NEED TO PAY ATTENTION TO A FULL ARSENAL, AND AS THE PRESIDENT SAID IN THE PRESS CONFERENCE, HE’S VERY AWARE OF JAPAN’S PROXIMITY TO NORTH KOREA. I MEAN, I THINK THAT WAS CLEAR LAST YEAR WHEN THE PRIME MINISTER WAS AT MAR-A-LAGO THE PREVIOUS TIME, AND THERE WAS THAT TEST, AND YOU COULD SEE ON THE MAP HOW CLOSE IT CAMPAIGNS TO JAPAN. THAT’S A VERY DIFFERENT REALITY THAT THEY HAVE TO FACE. AND THE PRESIDENT CLEARLY APPRECIATES IT. >> Woodruff: ANOTHER THING THAT WE ARE– THAT HAS BEEN RAISED IS WHETHER, AS PART OF THIS NEGOTIATION OVER THE MEETING, THE NORTH KOREANS PROMISING TO RETURN THE THREE AMERICANS WHO ARE STILL BEING HELD IN DETENTION IN NORTH KOREA. ARE– ARE– IS THE ADMINISTRATION TALKING TO THEM ABOUT THAT? DO YOU EXPECT THOSE PEOPLE WILL BE RELEASED? >> THE PRESIDENT HAS BEEN VERY CLEAR THAT THE RETURN OF UNJUSTLY DETAINED AMERICAN CITIZENS IS A TOP PRIORITY FOR THIS ADMINISTRATION. HE’S WORKED VERY HARD ON IF. THERE ARE A NUMBER OF US WHO HAVE PERSONALLY ENGAGED WITH SOME OF THE– SOME OF THE FAMILIES. WE HAVE A LARGE NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO WORK ON IT. SO I THINK HE HAS MADE THAT VERY CLEAR, AND I THINK HIS RAISING OF THE JAPANESE DETAINED CITIZENS WAS A SIGNIFICANT MOMENT IN THE PRESS CONFERENCE TODAY. THAT’S, OBVIOUSLY, A TOP PRIORITY FOR THE JAPANESE. SO I DON’T WANT TO SPEAK TO CONDITIONS OR PRECONDITIONS OR ANYTHING LIKE THAT. BUT, CERTAINLY, I THINK HE’S BEEN VERY, VERY CLEAR THAT HE WANTS OUR PEOPLE BACK. >> Woodruff: THESE WERE JAPANESE CITIZEN WHO WERE TAKEN IN THE 1970S AND 80s. WHAT ABOUT THE LOCATION FOR THE MEETING? IS PYONGYANG ONE OF THE PLACES YOU’RE LOOK AT? >> WE’VE HEARD SO MANY DIFFERENT PLACES. I MEAN, IT’S BEEN ALMOST LIKE A GLOBAL TOUR. I’VE HEARD SWEDEN, FINLAND, MONGOLIA, VIETNAM. I THINK THE ANSWER TO THAT QUESTION, GIVEN THE NUMBER OF PLACES IS NOBODY KNOWS YET. >> Woodruff: IS PYONGYANG A POSSIBILITY? >> I HAVE NOT SEEN THAT RAISED INTERNALLY AS A POSSIBILITY, BUT SINCE I DON’T THINK ANYBODY KNOWS, ANYTHING COULD BE POSSIBLE. >> Woodruff: DO YOU COME AWAY– DOES THE ADMINISTRATION COME AWAY WITH A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THIS OPAQUE REGIME AFTER MR. POMPEO’S MEETING? >> OH, ABSOLUTELY. >> Woodruff: WHAT CAN YOU SAY ABOUT HIM OR ABOUT HIS GOVERNMENT THAT– >> I THINK IT’S VERY IMPORTANT TO GET THAT FIRSTHAND KNOWLEDGE. AND, OBVIOUSLY, I WASN’T THERE, SO I DON’T WANT TO PUT WORDS IN DIRECTOR POMPEO’S MOUTH. BUT HE IS A VERY ASTUTE STUDENT OF HUMAN NATURE. HE IS VERY TALENTED AT PUTTING HIMSELF IN SOMEBODY ELSE’S SHOES. BECAUSE AS WE LOOK AT THE NORTH KOREAN REGIME, IT’S INEXPLICABLE TO US. WHY WOULD YOU SPEND YOUR MONEY AND ENERGY ON THIS? YOU KNOW, WHAT IS YOUR MOTIVATION FOR DOING THAT. AND I THINK GETTING THAT KIND OF PERSPECTIVE, SO YOU UNDERSTAND, YOU KNOW, WHAT IS THEIR CURRENCY. WHAT ARE THEY LOOKING FOR IN THIS NEGOTIATION WOULD BE ENORMOUSLY HELPFUL TO THE DIRECTOR. AND THAT’S SOMETHING HE’S, OBVIOUSLY, HIGHLY TRAINED AT. >> Woodruff: AND YOU’RE SAYING THAT SOME NEW INFORMATION CAME ACROSS. >> WELL, DEFINITELY YOU’RE GOING TO GET– OBVIOUSLY, FROM MEETING SOMEBODY FIRSTHAND, IT’S ALWAYS VERY, VERY DIFFERENT FROM SEEING THEM ON SCREEN. SO… >> Woodruff: VICTORIA COATES FROM PRESIDENT TRUMP’S NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL, THANK YOU VERY MUCH. >> IT’S A PLEASURE. THANK YOU, JUDY. >> Woodruff: THE UNITED STATES HAS A PROBLEM WITH MATERNAL MORTALITY AND IT’S ONE THAT’S BEEN GETTING WORSE. THE U.S. IS ONE OF ONLY 13 COUNTRIES WHERE THE DEATH RATE IS WORSE NOW THAN IT WAS 25 YEARS AGO, AND AMONG THE WORST OF WEALTHIEST COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD. BETWEEN 700 AND 900 AMERICAN WOMEN DIE EACH YEAR FROM PROBLEMS RELATED TO PREGNANCY, CHILDBIRTH OR COMPLICATIONS UP TO A YEAR LATER. THERE ARE AS MANY AS 50,000 CASES ANNUALLY WHERE WOMEN FACE DANGEROUS AND EVEN LIFE- THREATENING SITUATIONS. AS PART OF OUR ONGOING SERIES RACE MATTERS, AMNA NAWAZ LOOKS AT WHY IT’S DRAMATICALLY WORSE AMONG AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN. IT’S THE FOCUS OF THIS WEEK’S SEGMENT, “THE LEADING EDGE.” >> Nawaz: THE STATISTICS ARE STUNNING. BLACK INFANTS ARE MORE THAN TWICE AS LIKELY TO DIE AS WHITE INFANTS, A RACIAL DISPARITY THAT IS WIDER TODAY THAN IN 1850, 15 YEARS BEFORE THE END OF SLAVERY. AND BLACK WOMEN ARE THREE TO FOUR TIMES AS LIKELY TO DIE FROM PREGNANCY-RELATED CAUSES AS WHITE WOMEN. FOR A CLOSER LOOK AT WHAT’S BEHIND THOSE NUMBERS, WE TURN TO LINDA VILLAROSA. HER IN-DEPTH REPORT ON THE SUBJECT RAN IN THE “NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE.” AND MONICA SIMPSON, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF SISTERSONG, THE COUNTRY’S LARGEST ORGANIZATION DEDICATED TO REPRODUCTIVE JUSTICE FOR WOMEN OF COLOR. IN 2014, SHE TESTIFIED BEFORE THE UNITED NATIONS COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION. LINDA AND MONICA, WELCOME TO THE “NEWSHOUR.” LINDA, I’D LIKE TO START WITH YOU. HELP US UNDERSTAND THESE NUMBERS. WHAT IS GOING ON IN AMERICA, IN THE LIVES OF BLACK WOMEN, IN OUR MEDICAL COMMUNITIES THAT’S CAUSING THIS? >> WELL, WHAT I FOUND IN MY REPORTING WERE REALLY TWO THINGS, BOTH RELATED TO RACE. THE FIRST WAS THAT SIMPLY THE EXPERIENCE OF LIVING IN AMERICA AS A BLACK WOMAN DOES SOMETHING TO YOUR BODY THAT CAUSES LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES, THAT CAUSES MATERNAL MORTALITY, THAT CAUSES INFANT MORTALITY. SECOND, IS THAT THERE IS A KIND OF RACISM IN THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM, AND MOST OF IT UNCONSCIOUS. IT’S A KIND OF BIAS THAT’S EXISTED FOR A LONG TIME THAT WE’VE KNOWN ABOUT, THAT IS AFFECTING THE BIRTH EXPERIENCES OF BLACK WOMEN IN AMERICA. >> Nawaz: SO, MONICA, LET ME ASK YOU NOW, BECAUSE THIS CONVERSATION ABOUT THE BLACK-WHITE DISPARITY, IT’S LONG CENTERED ON THINGS LIKE WEALTH AND EDUCATION, RIGHT, THE IDEAL BEING POOR, LESS-EDUCATED WOMEN ARE LIKELY TO HAVE NEGATIVE OUTCOMES. BUT WE HEARD THE STORY OF SERENA WILLIAMS WHO HAD HER OWN SERIOUS COMPLICATIONS DURING HER DELIVERY AND SHE SHARED THEM VERY PUBLICLY. THAT TURNTD CONVERSATION ON ITS HEAD. IS THAT KIND OF EXPERIENCE MORE COMMON THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT? >> UNFORTUNATELY, IT’S VERY COMMON. AND WHAT IS SO CRITICAL ABOUT THIS, THIS ISSUE, IS THAT WE JUST CAME OUT OF BLACK MATERNAL HEALTH WEEK. THE BLACK MOMMA’S MATTERS ALLIANCE FROM THIS IMPORTANT WORK THAT WE DID THAT WE TOOK TO THE U.N. WE WERE ACTUALLY PICKING UP STORIES LIKE THIS AND HEARING THIS ACROSS THE BOARD FROM SO MANY BLACK WOMEN ACROSS THIS COUNTRY. BUT IT DIDN’T MATTER WHAT THEIR SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS WAS. IT DIDN’T MATTER, YOU KNOW, WHAT THEIR EDUCATION LEVEL WAS. HERE WE ARE LOOKING AT SERENA WILLIAMS, IN P, WHO WAS THE WORLD’S BEST ATHLETE. SHE DEFINITELY HAS SUPPORT. SHE’S DEFINITELY NOT DEALING WITH, YOU KNOW, ECONOMIC ISSUES. AND SHE STILL WAS DEAL WITH THE FACT THAT SHE ALMOST LOST HER LIFE AFTER GIVING BIRTH. THISSISTIC WE CAN SEE THE THREAD, RIGHT, THROUGH HER STORY AND SO MANY WOMEN, BLACK WOMEN ACROSS THE COUNTRY. UNFORTUNATELY, THEIR OUTCOMES WERE STILL JUST NOT– THEY WERE NOT APART. >> Nawaz: LINDA, I WANT TO DIG INTO SOMETHING YOU MENTIONED ABOUT THE OTHER THINGS HAPPENING IN WOMEN’S LIVES. YOU TELL THE STORY OF A WOMAN WHOSE DAUGHTER IS STILLBORN, HER MEDICAL STORY BEGINS AND ENDS WITH THE PREGNANCY AND THE DELIVERY. BUT IN YOUR REPORT YOU TRACE HER STORY BACK MUCH, MUFFLE FURTHER. TELL ME WHY THAT IS IMPORTANT, WHY AN UNDERSTANDING OF THAT COMPLETE STORY IS NECESSARY TO UNDERSTAND WHY THINGS END UP THE WAY THEY DO. >> I THINK WHAT HER STORY TOLD WAS REALLY A STORY OF EMPATHY. SO YOU COULD REALLY UNDERSTAND WHAT WOMEN GO THROUGH DURING PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH. AND HER BABY DIED, AND SHE ALMOST DIED IN 2016 FROM PREECLAMP SIA. AND THAT IS HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE DURING PREGNANCY. SO WHEN SHE ENDED UP GETTING PREGNANT AGAIN A YEAR LATER, SHE WAS TERRIFIED, SO SHE REALLY NEEDED A LOT OF SUPPORT BECAUSE SHE WAS VERY MUCH AFRAID OF COMING HOME EMPTY-HANDED AGAIN. AND I THINK TELLING THAT STORY REALLY IS A STORY OF HUMANITY. IT’S A STORY OF RESILIENCE. AND IT ALLOWS PEOPLE TO REALLY UNDERSTAND WHAT IS HAPPENING IN THE LIVES OF BLACK WOMEN TODAY. >> Nawaz: AND YOU USED A COUPLE OF PHRASES IN YOUR REPORT I’D LOVE FOR YOU TO EXPLAIN. “TOXIC STRESS” AND “WEATHERs.” HOW DO THOSE WORK IN THE CONTEXT OF THIS CONVERSATION? >> SO WHEN YOU HEAR THE WORD “STRESS,” YOU KIND OF THINK OF, “OH, I FEEL REALLY STRESSED OUT OR I NEED TO TAKE A CHILL PILL OR RELAX.” BUT REALLY, TOXIC STRESS IS THE RESULT OF AGGRESSIONS THAT HAPPEN TO YOU AND INSULTS THAT HAPPEN TO YOU, AND IN THIS CASE, RACE RELATED. IT CAN BE EVERYTHING FROM “I FEEL THAT I’M TREATED DIFFERENTLY. PEOPLE THINK I’M LESS INTELLIGENT,” TO “I AM BEING DISCRIMINATED AGAINST BY THE POLICE IN HOUSING AND IN MY WORKPLACE.” AND THOSE ACTUALLY IT’S BEEN PROVE THAN THOSE HAVE A PHYSICAL EFFECT ON THE BODY BECAUSE EVERY TIME YOU GET STRESSED OUT IN THIS WAY, AND IF IT HAPPENS REPEATEDLY, ALL OF YOUR SYSTEMS FIRE UP. AND IF YOUR SYSTEMS CONTINUALLY FIRE UP, THEY BREAK DOWN. AND “WEATHERING” IS THE IDEAL BECAUSE OF THESE REPEATED INSULTS AND THIS REPEATED FIRING UP THE SYSTEM, THE BODY AGES PREMATURELY. AND SO– AND IT’S NOT ON THE OUTSIDE. I MEAN IT COULD BE, BUT IT’S ON THE INSIDE. AND THAT ALL COMES TO A HEAD DURING WHAT IS ESSENTIALLY A STRESS TEST OF A WOMAN’S BODY, AND THAT IS PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH. >> Nawaz: AND, LINDH AWHEN YOU SAY THAT IT’S BEEN PROVEN, I WANT TO BE CLEAR ABOUT THIS, LINDA, IN YOUR REPORT YOU TALK ABOUT THE BODY OF EVIDENCE, THE STATISTICAL EVIDENCE, THAT TRACES BACK YEARS AND YEARS. TELL ME ABOUT THAT. >> ONE THING– WELL, HOW I LEARNED ABOUT IT– SPECIFICALLY, INFANT MORTALITY– HOW I LEARNED ABOUT THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN AN EDUCATED BLACK WOMAN HAS A HIGHER CHANCE OF HER BABY DYING THAN A WHITE WOMAN WITH AN EIGHTH GRADE EDUCATION WAS IN 1992 WHEN ONE OF MY PROFESSORS IN GRAD SCHOOL HANDED ME A STUDY THAT HAD THIS, THIS KIND OF DATA IN IT. AND IT WAS IN THE “NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE.” AND I ARGUED WITH HIM. AND HE SAID, “NO, THIS IS REAL.” AND I WENT BACK AND TALKED TO ONE OF THE WOMEN WHO WAS AN AUTHOR OF THAT STUDY, YOU KNOW, SEVERAL MONTHS AGO, AND SHE HAD COLLECTED 174 STUDIES THAT WERE SAYING SIMILAR THINGS, WHETHER THEY WERE ABOUT RACE IN THE– YOU KNOW, THE EFFECT OF RACE ON THE BODY, OR THE EFFECT OF RACE IN HEALTH CARE. AND I SAID, “MY GOSH. YOU HAVE 74 FOOTNOTES HERE, 174 FOOTNOTES.” AND SHE SAID, “YOU HAVE TO PROVE THINGS. YOU CAN’T JUST SAY ‘IT’S RACE’.” SO THIS IS A THING. >> Nawaz: SO, MONICA, I WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT THIS NOW. THERE IS, OBVIOUSLY, THE LIVED EXPERIENCE THAT CONTRIBUTES TO THIS, AND THERE IS ALSO, AS YOU MENTIONED, WHAT HAPPENS, OR WHAT WE NOW KNOW HAPPENS BY AND LARGE TO WOMEN OF COLOR, PARTICULARLY BLACK WOMEN, INSIDE THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. YOU TESTIFIED ABOUT THAT RACIAL DISPARITY BEFORE THE UNITED NATIONS. WHAT IF ANYTHING IS BEING DONE TO ADDRESS THAT SO FAR? >> ABSOLUTELY. ONE, WE HAVE TO ADDRESS THE FACT THAT WE HAVE LACK OF MEDICAID EXPANSION IN THIS COUNTRY AND THE LACK OF ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE. IT’S STILL HUGE. IN THE SOUTH OVERWHELMINGLY, WE SAW THAT WE DIDN’T SEE AN EXPANSION OF MEDICAID. SO THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE ARE STILL LEFT WITHOUT ACCESS TO THEIR BASIC HEALTH CARE. WE ALSO LOOKED AT THE FACT THAT, UNFORTUNATELY, WE ARE STILL DEALING WITH ABSTINENCE-ONLY EDUCATION THAT DOESN’T GIVE A COMPREHENSIVE, YOU KNOW, OVERVIEW FOR FOLKS FOR THEM TO UNDERSTAND THEIR BODY AND WHAT HAPPENS TO THEIR BODIES AND TO HELP PEOPLE PLAN AND THINK ABOUT WHAT THEY WANT FOR THEIR LIVES. THAT IS ALSO VERY CRITICAL TO THIS HAD. AND THEN THINKING ABOUT THE FACT THAT RESEARCH IS STILL NEEDED, RIGHT. WE STILL NEED TO GET ACCURATE NUMBERS AND CONTINUE TO FEED THESE STATISTICS AND LET PEOPLE UNDERSTAND THE FULLNESS OF THIS ISSUE. AND THEN THAT WILL HELP US THINK ABOUT HOW TO MOVE THIS IN TERMS OF POLICY AND MAKING SURE THAT OUR ELECTED OFFICIALS UNDERSTAND THAT WE NEED TO HAVE THIS HANDLED, RIGHT NOUR POLICIES, AND WE NEED TO MOVE FORWARD WITH PROACTIVE LEGISLATION THAT HELPS US GET ON THE FRONT EFNED OF THIS ISSUE TO SEE SOME OF– TO SEE THESE NUMBERS DECREASE. SO FROM BRINGING THOSE STORIES FROM ON THE GROUND, YOU KNOW, THE STATISTICS ARE REAL, AND SO ARE THE STORIES, FROM SO MANY FOLKS WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED OPPRESSION. THEY’VE EXPERIENCED DISCRIMINATION. YOU KNOW, WITHIN THE SYSTEM. >> Nawaz: LINDA, YOU MENTIONED THE CONVERSATION OVER 25, 30 YEARS AGO NOW, TODAY, WHAT DO YOU THINK IS THE NEXT THING THAT NEEDS TO HAPPEN TO ALLEVIATE THAT DISPARITY? >> I THINK THAT WHAT WE HAVE TO DO IS CHANGE THE MEDICAL SYSTEM. SOMETHING IS DEEPLY EMBEDDED, YOU KNOW A KIND OF EYE MEAN, I DON’T WANT TO SAY INDIVIDUAL PEOPLE ARE RACIST. MAYBE THAT IS PART OF IT. BUT THIS IS A– SOMETHING THAT’S EMBEDDED IN THE SYSTEM. IT’S BAKED IN. AND WE HAVE TO, STARTATH MEDICAL SCHOOL AND BEFORE, TO START GETTING DOCTORS TO FACE– AND OTHER MEDICAL PROVIDERS — TO FACE UNCONSCIOUS BIAS THAT IS AFFECT THE CARE THAT WOMEN OF COLOR AND EVERYONE RECEIVES IN THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. SO I THINK THAT’S A VERY, VERY IMPORTANT FIRST STEP. >> Nawaz: LINDA VILLAROSA, MONICA SIMPSON, THANKS FOR YOUR TIME. >> THANK YOU SO MUCH. >> THANK YOU! THANKS. >> Woodruff: ON THE NEWSHOUR AT MOMENTS AGO AT THE END OF HIS PRESS CONFERENCE WITH PRIME MINISTER ABE OF JAPAN, PRESIDENT TRUMP WAS ASKED IF HE WOULD FIRE DEPUTY ATTORNEY GENERAL ROBERT ROSENSTEIN OR SPECIAL COUNSEL ROBERT MUELLER. PRESIDENT TRUMP SAID DESPITE NEWS MEDIA REPORTS THAT HE IS CONSIDERING FIRING THEM THAT THEY ARE “STILL HERE,” AND HE WANTS THE INVESTIGATIONS PUT BEHIND US. AND THAT’S THE NEWSHOUR FOR TONIGHT. I’M JUDY WOODRUFF. FOR ALL OF US AT THE PBS NEWSHOUR, THANK YOU AND SEE YOU SOON. >> CONSUMER CELLULAR BELIEVES THAT WIRELESS PLANS SHOULD REFLECT THE AMOUNT OF TALK, TEXT AND DATA THAT YOU USE. WE OFFER A VARIETY OF NO- CONTRACT WIRELESS PLANS FOR PEOPLE WHO USE THEIR PHONE A LITTLE, A LOT, OR ANYTHING IN BETWEEN. TO LEARN MORE, GO TO consumercellular.tv >> BABBEL. A LANGUAGE APP THAT TEACHES REAL-LIFE CONVERSATIONS IN A NEW LANGUAGE. >> AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS AND INDIVIDUALS. >> THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU. Captioning sponsored by NEWSHOUR PRODUCTIONS, LLC Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org

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