Symptoms in Schizophrenia [Silent] (Pennsylvania State College, 1938)

[Symptoms in Schizophrenia, James D. Page, The University of Rochester] [Schizophrenia (dementia praecox) is the most prevalent of mental disorders. About one per cent of the population eventually develop it.] [It is essentially a chronic disease of unknown origin, characterized by marked personality disintegration.] [In general appearance schizophrenics resemble normal individuals. All body types are represented. Distinction lies in their mental content and behavior.] [Schizophrenics are divided into four clinical groups: simple, paranoid, catatonic and hebephrenic.] [Apathy and absence of social interest characterize all types, especially the simple group who exhibit few additional symptoms.] [Outdoor scene with some men seated on benches and some men standing.] [Some men are pacing and others look disturbed.] [Delusions and hallucinations occur in most hebephrenic, catatonic and paranoid patients.] [The latter often give evidence of these symptoms by conversing or arguing with imaginary individuals.] [A woman is seated in a rocking chair on a fenced-in outdoor porch. She seems to be talking to an imaginary person.] [A man is standing inside a building near a window and looking outside. He is gesticulating and seems agitated.] [A woman is standing outside. She has on a floral dress and a white cloth mask over the upper part of her face, with holes cut for her eyes. She is pointing and yelling.] [Silly grinning and talking to oneself distinguish the hebephrenic.] [A man is seated in a rocking chair with a blindfold over his eyes. He is laughing and talking to himself.] [A woman is standing on the lawn outside.] [She has on a mask with eyeholes and is wearing a floral dress. She is talking.] [A man is seated in front of a brick wall. His eyes are covered by a white cloth blindfold.] [He is talking, grinning, and laughing.] [Mannerisms and motor stereotypes may occur in hebephrenics but they are essentially catatonic symptoms.] [A man is seated outside with a brick building behind him.] [He wears a mask with eyeholes, over the upper portion of his face. He is moving his hands nervously and constantly.] [He is talking and repeatedly puts his hand on his mouth, then drums his fingers on the back of his other hand.] [A man wearing glasses is standing on the lawn outside.] [A brick building is behind him. He moves his hands in the same pattern repeatedly.] [A man is seated in a chair outside. He moves his hands about and his fingertips flutter.] [A woman in a plaid dress is seated in a chair on a porch.] [Her face is half-covered with a white cloth with eyeholes. She moves her hands repeatedly near her face.] [Then she holds her hands up and repeatedly cups her chin and face.] [Some catatonics passively permit their limbs to be molded at examiner’s will. This waxy flexibility is called cerea flexibilitas.] [A man dressed all in white manipulates the arms of a patient. The patient is a male wearing a mask with eyeholes.] [He allows the examiner to put his arms in any position without protest.] [The examiner continues to manipulate the patient’s arms and body in numerous positions. The patient passively allows the manipulation.] [The patient is now seated in a chair on the lawn.] [The examiner continues to manipulate the patient, moving his arms and legs into awkward positions.] [The spontaneous shift from an induced pose to a more natural position is slow and gradual.] [Following sequence records the lowering of raised arms after 1, 5, and 30 minutes.] [A man is outside and his arms have been placed over his head by an examiner.] [He is filmed at 1, 5 and 30 minutes after being manipulated as he slowly lowers his arms to a more natural position.] [Other catatonics are extremely rigid and negativistic. They actively resist change.] [A man is outside with a brick wall behind him. An examiner attempts to move the man’s arm.] [The man resists the movement.] [The examiner also attempts to move the man’s head as the man is seated outside, and the man resists.] [The examiner attempts to move the man’s head while the man is standing. The man resists all attempts.] [Peculiar postures are assumed by some catatonics and often retained for days or months.] [A man is outside standing beside a brick wall. He has a mask over his eyes. He is standing stiffly] [The man is now facing the camera.] [He is standing with his head bent down in front and is holding it with his hands on each side.] [A woman is outside standing in front of a brick wall. She is wearing a floral dress and has a mask over her eyes.] [Her arms are crossed over her chest and she is looking down. She doesn’t move.] [A person is seated in a chair facing away from the camera. The person is bent over with elbows on knees.] [A woman in a floral dress is outside standing near a building.] [She has a mask over her eyes and her arms are at her sides. She is bent slightly at the waist and is looking down.] [A man is seated in a chair outside with a brick wall behind him. He is bent at the waist and looking down.] [His hands are gripping the arms of the chair. He is motionless.] [A man is seated in a chair outside with a brick wall behind him, wearing a mask with eyeholes.] [He is looking down and his arms and hands are between his legs.] [ A man is seated in a chair parallel to a brick wall. He wears a mask with eyeholes.] [His legs and feet are drawn up beneath him and he is seated slightly sideways in the chair.] [He moves restlessly and holds his head, covering his ears.] [Echopraxia is a rare but striking catatonic symptom. Some inner forces appear to “compel” the patient to repeat the movements of others.] [A man and a woman are seated outside on chairs.] [The man makes movements with his hands and legs and the woman imitates him.] [The woman’s movements are somewhat exaggerated and she almost falls off the chair.] [The woman continues to follow the man’s arm and leg movements in an exaggerated style.] [She tries to touch the examiner and almost falls over, so he helps her back into her chair. They continue the exercise.] [The examiner rolls his arms in front of him and the woman copies him. [The man brushes his shoulder and the woman copies his movement.] [The man does the same with the opposite shoulder and the woman again copies him.] [The man touches his face repeatedly and the woman imitates his movements.] [The man brushes his hair back with his hand and the woman imitates him again.] [In contrast the following case is one of pseudo-echopraxia.] [Repetition is present but the performance, though spontaneous, is suggestive of voluntary imitation.] [A male patient with his eyes covered by a mask is seated in a chair outside next to a brick building.] [An examiner is standing next to him.] [The examiner makes various arm, leg, and head movements and the patient imitates him.] [The patient seems to be following the movements voluntarily.] [The patient is now standing up and continues to imitate the examiner.] [The examiner is now facing the patient and making more movements as the patient imitates him.] [The examiner continues to make head, arm and other movements as the patient imitates him.] [The examiner shakes hands with the patient as the film ends.]


  1. I am not schizophrenic but people think I am because I talk to myself and imaginary people, and I sometimes start uncontrollably laughing or crying. I dont know why I do these things:/

  2. These people were other people's wives and husbands, sons and daughters, mothers and fathers, friends and coworkers. I do wonder what happened to them.

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