Tensor fasciae latae muscle

The tensor fasciae latae is a muscle of the
thigh. Structure
It arises from the anterior part of the outer lip of the iliac crest; from the outer surface
of the anterior superior iliac spine, and part of the outer border of the notch below
it, between the gluteus medius and sartorius; and from the deep surface of the fascia lata. It is inserted between the two layers of the
iliotibial band of the fascia lata about the junction of the middle and upper thirds of
the thigh. The tensor fasciae latae tautens the iliotibial
band and braces the knee, especially when the opposite foot is lifted. The terminal insertion point lies on the lateral
condyle of the tibia. Innervation
Tensor fasciae latae is innervated by the superior gluteal nerve, L5 and S1. At its origins of the anterior rami of L4,
L5, and S1 nerves, the superior gluteal nerve exits the pelvis via greater sciatic foramen
superior to the piriformis. The nerve also courses between the gluteus
medius and minimus. The superior gluteal artery also supplies
the tensor fasciae latae. The superior gluteal nerve arises from the
sacral plexus and only has motor innervation associated with it. There is no cutaneous innervation for sensation
that stems from the superior gluteal nerve. The tensor fasciae latae is a hip flexor and
abductor muscle, meaning it assists in moving the hip forward and outward. Rotating the hips inward is another action
the TFL muscle does. Because it is used for so many movements and
is in a shortened position when seated, the TFL becomes tight easily. TFL stretches lengthen this important muscle. The TFL is often involved in lateral meniscus
and or knee pain/ problems. Evaluating for strain-sprain and trigger point
in the TFL and then correcting with Jones and or Travell technique will significantly
aid recovery and reduce pain. Function
The tensor fasciae latae is a tensor of the fascia lata; continuing its action, the oblique
direction of its fibers enables it to stabilize the hip in extension. The fascia lata is a fibrous sheath that encircles
the thigh like a subcutaneous stocking and tightly binds its muscles. On the lateral surface, it combines with the
tendons of the gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae to form the iliotibial band,
which extends from the iliac crest to the lateral condyle of the tibia. In the erect posture, acting from below, it
will serve to steady the pelvis upon the head of the femur; and by means of the iliotibial
band it steadies the condyles of the femur on the articular surfaces of the tibia, and
assists the gluteus maximus in supporting the knee in a position of extension. The basic functional movement of tensor fasciae
latae is walking. The tensor fasciae latae is heavily utilized
in horse riding, hurdling and water skiing. Some problems that arise when this muscle
is tight or shortened are pelvic imbalances that lead to pain in hips, as well as pain
in the lower back and lateral area of knees. Because of its insertion point on the lateral
condyle of the tibia, it also aids in the lateral rotation of the tibia. This lateral rotation may be initiated in
conjunction with hip abduction and medial rotation of the femur while kicking a soccer
ball. The tensor fasciae latae works in synergy
with the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles to abduct and medially rotate the
femur. The TFL is a hip abductor muscle. To stretch the tensor fasciae latae, the knee
may be brought medially across your body. If one leans against a wall with crossed legs
and pushes the pelvis away from the wall sidebending the lumbar spine should be avoided as it stretches
the lumbar region rather than the tensor fasciae latae and other muscles which cross the hip
rather than the spine. Clinical significance
Injury Common TFL injuries are diagnosed by having
the patient stand with the opposite leg raised. Since the TFL engages to maintain balance
in this position, it is a way to isolate the source of any hip/knee pain. If there is pain near the hip and knee and
difficulty maintaining balance while the opposite leg is raised, it usually indicates a TFL
strain. History
Etymology “Tensor fasciae latae” translates from Latin
to English as “stretcher of the wide band”. “Tensor” is an agent noun that comes from
the past participle stem “tens-” of the Latin verb “tendere”, meaning “to stretch”. “Fasciae” is the Latin term for “of the band”
and is in the singular genitive case. “Latae” is the respective singular, genitive,
feminine form of the Latin adjective “latus” meaning “wide”. Additional images References
This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray’s Anatomy. External links
Origin, insertion and nerve supply of the muscle at Loyola University Chicago Stritch
School of Medicine 705036366 at GPnotebook
Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15 – Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University
of Vienna tensor+fasciae+latae+muscle at eMedicine Dictionary
Muscles/TensorFasciaeLatae at exrx.net Coachr

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